Balcis bulbula, from New Zealand Mollusca.

Belongs within: Littorinina.
Contains: Eulima, Aclis, Melanella (Melanella), Balcis (Balcis).

The Vanikoroidea are a group of carnivorous marine gastropods associated by molecular data. Members include the Eulimidae which live as parasites on echinoderms from which they feed by means of a piercing proboscis. Shells of eulimids are commonly translucent, allowing the internal viscera to be observed in life. The Vanikoridae have often globose shells with extremely large apertures and may be sessile at maturity. Gigantocapulus are large Cretaceous limpet-like shells of uncertain affinities found in association with bivalves.

Vanikoroidea [Eulimacea, Eulimoidea] BR17
    |--Gigantocapulus Hayami & Kanie 1980 [Gigantocapulidae] BR17
    |    `--*G. giganteus (Schmidt 1873) [=Helcion giganteus] BR17
    |--Vanikoridae [Merriidae, Naricidae, Naricinae, Vanicoroidae] BR17
    |    |--Korovania F27a
    |    |--Vanikoropsis Meek 1876 SH12
    |    |    |--V. arktowskiana (Wilckens 1910) SH12
    |    |    |--V. decussata (Deshayes 1842) TTE93
    |    |    `--V. stuarti F71
    |    |--Megalomphalus Brusina 1871 O27b
    |    |    |--*M. azonus O27b
    |    |    |--M. californicus (Dall 1913) [=Macromphalina californica] O27b
    |    |    `--M. millerae (Usticke 1959) [=Vanikoro millerae] BC01
    |    `--Vanikoro Quoy & Gaimard 1832 [=Merria Gray 1839, Narica d’Orbigny 1842, Vanicoro Gray 1840] BR05
    |         |--*V. cancellata (Lamarck 1822) BR17 (see below for synonymy)
    |         |--V. aperta (Carpenter 1864) PP78 [=Narica aperta C64]
    |         |--V. clathrata (Recluz 1845) [=Narica clathrata] H09
    |         |--V. dehayesiana (Recluz 1843) [=Narica deshayesiana] H09
    |         |--‘Narica’ diegoana Conrad 1855 C64
    |         |--V. gaimardi Adams 1854 H09
    |         |--V. incerta Usticke 1959 (n. d.) BC01
    |         `--V. oxychone [incl. Macromphalina pilsbryi] M65
    `--Eulimidae (see below for synonymy) BR17
         |--Annulobalcis aurisflamma Simone & Martins 1995 S11
         |--Monogamus PC08
         |--Echineulima PC08
         |--Costaclis BR05
         |--Eulima BR05
         |--Semistylifer pellucidus (Deshayes 1824) TTE93
         |--Aclis BR17
         |--Asterophila Randall & Heath 1912 [Asterophilidae] BR05
         |    `--*A. japonica Randall & Heath 1912 BR17
         |--Thyca Adams & Adams 1854 [Thycidae, Thycinae] BR05
         |    `--*T. astericola (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Pileopsis astericola] BR17
         |--Paedophoropus Ivanov 1933 [Paedophoropodidae] BR05
         |    `--*P. dicoelobius Ivanov 1933 BR17
         |--Entoconcha Müller 1852 [Cochlosolenia, Entoconchidae, Entoconchini] BR05
         |    `--*E. mirabilis Müller 1852 BR17 [incl. Helicosyrinx parasita Baur 1864 BK77]
         |--Enteroxenos Bonnevie 1902 [Enteroxenidae, Enteroxeninae, Enteroxenini] BR05
         |    `--*E. oestergreni Bonnevie 1902 BR17 [incl. Comenteroxenos parastichopi Tikasingh 1961 BK77]
         |--Margineulima Cossmann 1888 DK08
         |    `--M. danae (Tenison Woods 1879) DK08
         |--‘Pherusa’ Jeffreys 1869 nec Oken 1807 nec Leach 1814 [Pherusidae] BR05
         |    `--*P. gulsonae (Clark 1850) [=Chemnitzia gulsonae] BR17
         |--Teretianax Iredale 1918 P61
         |    |--*T. suteri [=Scalenostoma suteri] P61
         |    `--T. pagoda Powell 1926 P61
         |--Entocolax Voigt 1888 [Cochlosyringia, Entocolacidae] BR05
         |    |--*E. ludwigii Voigt 1888 BR17
         |    `--E. schwanwitschi BK77
         |--Pyramidelloides BC01
         |    |--P. glaber Faber 1990 BC01
         |    `--P. multicostatus Faber 1990 BC01
         |--Chileutomia Tate & Cossmann 1898 P61
         |    |--*C. subvaricosa Tate 1898 F27b
         |    `--C. neozelanica Powell 1940 P61
         |--Venustilifer Powell 1939 P61
         |    |--*V. bountyensis (Powell 1933) [=Hypermastus bountyensis] P61
         |    `--V. secundus Powell 1940 P61
         |--Cythna Carpenter 1864 O27a
         |    |--*C. tumens [=Stylifer tumens] O27a
         |    |--C. albida Carpenter 1864 O27a
         |    `--C. asteriaphila C64
         |--Haliella Monterosato 1873 O27a
         |    |--*H. stenostoma O27a
         |    |--H. abyssicola Bartsch 1908 O27a
         |    `--H. lomana Dall 1908 O27a
         |--Pelseneeria Koehler & Vaney 1908 (see below for synonymy) BR05
         |    |--*P. profunda Koehler & Vaney 1908 BR17
         |    |--P. media BK77
         |    |--P. stimpsoni (Verrill 1882) [=Stilifer stimpsoni] BK77
         |    `--P. stylifera (Turton 1825) BK77 (see below for synonymy)
         |--Stilifer Broderip 1832 [=Stylifer (l. c.); Stiliferinae] BR05
         |    |--*S. astericola Broderip 1832 P61, H09
         |    |--S. auricula Hedley 1907 H09
         |    |--S. neozelanicus Dell 1956 P61
         |    |--S. orbiculata Hedley 1907 H09
         |    `--S. turtoni N79
         |--Strombiformis da Costa 1778 (nom. rej.) [Strombiformidae] BR05
         |    |--*S. glaber da Costa 1778 BR17
         |    |--S. alaskensis Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |    |--S. almo Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |    |--S. auricincta Abbott 1958 B59
         |    `--S. californicus Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |--Niso Risso 1826 O27a
         |    |--N. baueri Emerson 1965 BC01
         |    |--N. brunnea F66
         |    |--N. emersoni McLean 1970 BC01
         |    |--N. hipolitensis Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |    |--N. lineata (Conrad 1841) P12
         |    |--N. lomana Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |    |--N. psilo Tenison-Woods 1879 F71
         |    `--N. splendidula (Sowerby 1834) PP78
         |--Melanella Bowdich 1822 BR05
         |    |  i. s.: M. bibsae Usticke 1959 BC01
         |    |         M. grandis (Adams 1854) [=Eulima grandis] H09
         |    |         M. laseroni Hedley 1916 P61
         |    |         M. martinii (Adams 1854) [=Eulima martinii] H09
         |    |         M. petterdi (Beddome 1883) [=Eulima petterdi] H09
         |    |         M. tortuosa (Adams & Reeve 1850) [=Eulima tortuosa] H09
         |    |--M. (Melanella) O27a
         |    `--M. (Sabinella Monterosato 1890) O27a
         |         |--M. (S.) bakeri Bartsch 1917 O27a
         |         `--M. (S.) ptilocrinicola Bartsch 1907 O27a
         `--Balcis Leach 1847 P61
              |  i. s.: B. columbiana B56
              |         B. devians [=Eulima devians; incl. E. philippii Watson 1886] BK77
              |         B. eburnea GO06
              |         B. grippi B56
              |         B. intermedia (Cantraine 1835) S11
              |--B. (Balcis) P61
              |--B. (Mucronalia Adams 1862) P61
              |    |--B. (*M.) exilis P61
              |    |--‘Mucronalia’ bizonula Melvill 1906 H09
              |    |--B. (M.) bulbula (Murdoch & Suter 1906) P61
              |    |--‘Mucronalia’ involuta C64
              |    `--‘Mucronalia’ solitaria [=Eulima solitaria] C64
              `--B. (Vitreolina) B56
                   |--‘Vitreolina’ curva (Monterosato 1974) O96
                   |--‘Vitreolina’ levantina Oliverio, Buzzurro & Villa 1994 O96
                   |--B. (V.) thersites (Carpenter 1864) B56, O27a (see below for synonymy)
                   `--B. (V.) titubans Berry 1956 B56

Balcis (Vitreolina) thersites (Carpenter 1864) B56, O27a [=Melanella (Balcis) thersites O27a; incl. Eulima bistorta O27a, E. lowei O27a]

Eulimidae [Aclidae, Aclididae, Aclidinae, Aclidoidea, Aclisidae, Aglossa, Entoconchida, Entoconchilla, Euliminae, Exoconchilla, Melanellacea, Melanellidae, Saccopallia, Stiliferidae, Stiliferoidei, Styliferida, Styliferidae] BR17

Pelseneeria Koehler & Vaney 1908 [incl. Rosenia Nierstrasz 1913 non Waagen & Wentzel 1886, Stylina Fleming 1828 non Lamarck 1816, Turtonia Rosén 1910 non Alder 1848; Pelseneeridae, Pelseneeriidae, Roseniidae, Turtoniidae] BR05

Pelseneeria stylifera (Turton 1825) BK77 [=Phasianella stylifera BK77, *Rosenia stylifera BR17, Stilifer stylifer BK77, *Stylina stylifera BR17, *Turtonia stylifera BR17]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B59] Baker, B. B. 1959. Publications received: The marine mollusks of Grand Cayman Island, British West Indies. By R. Tucker Abbott. Nautilus 72 (4): 147–148.

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B56] Berry, S. S. 1956. Mollusca dredged by the Orca off the Santa Barbara Islands, California, in 1951. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (5): 150–157.

[BR05] Bouchet, P., & J.-P. Rocroi. 2005. Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families. Malacologia 47 (1–2): 1–397.

[BR17] Bouchet, P., J.-P. Rocroi, B. Hausdorf, A. Kaim, Y. Kano, A. Nützel, P. Parkhaev, M. Schrödl & E. E. Strong. 2017. Revised classification, nomenclator and typification of gastropod and monoplacophoran families. Malacologia 61 (1–2): 1–526.

[BC01] Boyko, C. B., & J. R. Cordeiro. 2001. Catalog of Recent type specimens in the Division of Invertebrate Zoology, American Museum of Natural History. V. Mollusca, part 2 (class Gastropoda [exclusive of Opisthobranchia and Pulmonata], with supplements to Gastropoda [Opisthobranchia], and Bivalvia). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 262: 1–170.

[C64] Carpenter, P. P. 1864. Supplementary report on the present state of our knowledge with regard to the Mollusca of the west coast of North America. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science 33: 517–686.

[DK08] Darragh, T. A., & G. W. Kendrick. 2008. Silicified Eocene molluscs from the Lower Murchison district, Southern Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (3): 217–246.

[F27a] Finlay, H. J. 1927a. Additions to Recent molluscan fauna of New Zealand, no. 2. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 485–487.

[F27b] Finlay, H. J. 1927b. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[F71] Fletcher, H. O. 1971. Catalogue of type specimens of fossils in the Australian Museum, Sydney. Australian Museum Memoir 13: 1–167.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Communication of a list of mollusks collected by R. Swinhoe, Esq., in Formosa. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 146.

[GO06] Giribet, G., A. Okusu, A. R. Lindgren, S. W. Huff, M. Schrödl & M. K. Nishiguchi. 2006. Evidence for a clade composed of molluscs with serially repeated structures: monoplacophorans are related to chitons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (20): 7723–7728.

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[M65] Moore, D. R. 1965. New species of Vitrinellidae from Gulf of Mexico and adjacent waters. Nautilus 78 (3): 73–79.

[N79] Norman, A. M. 1879. The Mollusca of the fiords near Bergen, Norway. Journal of Conchology 2: 8–77.

[O27a] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927a. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 2. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[O27b] Oldroyd, I. S. 1927b. The Marine Shells of the West Coast of North America vol. 2 pt 3. Stanford University Press: Stanford University (California).

[O96] Oliverio, M. 1996. Contrasting developmental strategies and speciation in N.E. Atlantic prosobranchs: a preliminary analysis. In: Taylor, J. D. (ed.) Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca pp. 261–266. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[P12] Petuch, E. J. 2012. Miocene asteroid impacts: proposed effects on the biogeography and extinction patterns of eastern North American gastropods. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 967–981. Springer.

[PC08] Ponder, W. F., D. J. Colgan, J. M. Healy, A. Nützel, L. R. L. Simone & E. E. Strong. 2008. Caenogastropoda. In: Ponder, W. F., & D. L. Lindberg (eds) Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca pp. 331–383. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[PP78] Poorman, F. L., & L. H. Poorman. 1978. Additional molluscan records from Bahía de Los Angeles, Baja California Norte. Veliger 20 (4): 369–374.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S11] Simone, L. R. L. 2011. Phylogeny of the Caenogastropoda (Mollusca), based on comparative morphology. Arquivos de Zoologia 42 (4): 161–323.

[SH12] Stilwell, J. D., & E. Håkansson. 2012. Survival, but…! New tales of ‘dead clade walking’ from Austral and Boreal post-K–T assemblages. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 795–810. Springer.

[TTE93] Tracey, S., J. A. Todd & D. H. Erwin. 1993. Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 131–167. Chapman & Hall: London.

Last updated: 16 September 2021.

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