Austrochiloidea

Macrogradungula moonya, copyright Szűts Tamás.


Belongs within: Neocribellatae.

The Austrochiloidea are a clade of araneomorph spiders found in southern South America and Australasia that retain two pairs of spiracular openings, with the posterior book-lungs often modified into tracheae. The Australasian Gradungulidae are characterised by strongly dissimilar claws on the first two pairs of legs, together with numerous ventral spines on the tarsi (Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007).

<==Austrochiloidea JD-S07
    |--Austrochilidae [Hickmaniidae] JD-S07
    |    |--Hickmania Gertsch 1985 [Hickmaniinae] JD-S07
    |    |    `--H. troglodytes [=Theridion troglodytes] FF99
    |    `--Austrochilinae JD-S07
    |         |--Thaida Karsch 1880 JD-S07
    |         |    `--T. peculiaris R14
    |         `--Austrochilus Gertsch & Zapfe 1955 JD-S07
    |              |--A. forsteri R14
    |              |--A. franckei JD-S07
    |              `--A. melon JD-S07
    `--Gradungulidae JD-S07
         |--Kayia Gray 1987 JD-S07
         |--Gradungula Forster 1955 JD-S07
         |    `--*G. sorenseni Forster 1955 PVD10
         |--Tarlina Gray 1987 JD-S07
         |    `--T. woodwardi [=Gradungula woodwardi] FF99
         |--Spelungula Forster in Forster et al. 1987 PVD10
         |    `--*S. cavernicola Forster in Forster et al. 1987 PVD10
         |--Pianoa Forster in Forster et al. 1987 PVD10
         |    `--*P. isolata Forster in Forster et al. 1987 PVD10
         |--Progradungula Forster & Gray 1979 JD-S07
         |    `--P. carraiensis FF99
         `--Macrogradungula Gray 1987 JD-S07
              `--M. moonya MF01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FF99] Forster, R., & L. Forster. 1999. Spiders of New Zealand and their World-wide Kin. University of Otago Press: Dunedin (New Zealand).

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[MF01] Monteith, G. B., & L. H. Field. 2001. Australian king crickets: distribution, habitats and biology (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). In: Field, L. H. (ed.) The Biology of Wetas, King Crickets and Their Allies pp. 79–94. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[PVD10] Paquin, P., C. J. Vink & N. Dupérré. 2010. Spiders of New Zealand: annotated family key and species list. Manaaki Whenua Press: Lincoln (New Zealand).

[R14] Ramírez, M. J. 2014. The morphology and phylogeny of dionychan spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 390: 1–374.

Last updated: 12 October 2019.

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