Theraphosidae

Pink-toe tarantula Avicularia avicularia, from here.


Belongs within: Avicularoidea.

The Theraphosidae, tarantulas, are a pantropical group of sometimes very large mygalomorph spiders that inhabit silken burrows or retreats.

Characters (from Jocqué & Dippenaar-Schoeman 2007): Medium-sized to very large; eight eyes present in two rows; rastellum absent; labium and endites with numerous cuspules, anterior lobe on endite developed; legs with well-developed scopulae and iridescent claw tufts on leg tarsi and female palpal tarsi, leg tarsi with clavate trichobothria along their length, two or rarely three tarsal claws; four spinnerets present, distal segment of posterior spinnerets digitiform.

<==Theraphosidae [Theraphosoidae]
    |--Eumenophorinae JD-S07
    |--Selenogyrinae JD-S07
    |--Stromatopelminae JD-S07
    |--Thrigmopoeinae JD-S07
    |--Harpactirinae JD-S07
    |    |--Harpactirella JD-S07
    |    `--Brachionopus JD-S07
    |--Ischnocolinae BFSJ08
    |    |--Sickius longibulbi Soares & Camargo 1948 BFSJ08
    |    `--Ischnocolus Auss. 1871 T94
    |         |--I. hirsutus B06
    |         `--I. inermis Ausserer 1871 [incl. I. subarmatus Thorell 1891] T94
    |--Ornithoctoninae ZZ08
    |    |--Ornithoctonus Pocock 1892 ZZ08
    |    |--Citharognathus Pocock 1895 ZZ08
    |    |    |--*C. hosei Pocock 1895 ZZ08
    |    |    `--C. tongmianensis Zhu, Li & Song 2002 ZZ08
    |    `--Haplopelma Simon 1892 ZZ08
    |         |--*H. doriae (Thorell 1890) [=Selenocosmia doriae] ZZ08
    |         |--H. hainanum (Liang et al. 1999) [=Selenocosmia hainana, Ornithoctonus hainana] ZZ08
    |         `--H. schmidti von Wirth 1991 (see below for synonymy) ZZ08
    |--Avicularia Lamarck 1818 FNB08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--*A. avicularia (Linnaeus 1758) FNB08 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--‘Mygale’ barbara Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |--‘Eurypelma’ californicum (Ausserer 1871) (n. d.) BFSJ08
    |    |--‘Eurypelma’ doeringii T94
    |    |--A. exilis Strand 1907 J98
    |    |--‘Mygale’ gracilipes Lucas 1846 E12
    |    |--A. lycosiformis (Koch 1842) (n. d.) [=Mygale lycosiformis, Trechona lycosiformis] PCBFF08
    |    |--‘Eurypelma’ minax Thorell 1894 T94
    |    |--‘Mygale’ occidentalis Lucas 1858 SP10
    |    |--A. subvulpina Strand 1906 J98
    |    `--A. vestiaria K92
    |--Selenocosmiinae ZZ08
    |    |--Phlogiellus Pocock 1897 ZZ08
    |    |--Yamia Kishida 1920 [incl. Baccallbrapo Barrion & Litsinger 1995] ZZ08
    |    |    |--*Y. watasei Kishida 1920 ZZ08
    |    |    `--Y. bundokalbo (Barrion & Litsinger 1995) JD-S07, ZZ08 [=Baccallbrapo bundokalbo ZZ08]
    |    |--Chilobrachys Karsch 1891 [incl. Musagetes Pocock 1895) ZZ08
    |    |    |--*C. nitelinus Karsch 1891 ZZ08
    |    |    |--C. guangxiensis (Yin & Tan 2000) (see below for synonymy) ZZ08
    |    |    |--C. hubei Song & Zhao 1988 ZZ08
    |    |    `--C. liboensis Zhu & Zhang 2008 ZZ08
    |    `--Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 (see below for synonymy) ZZ08
    |         |--*S. javanensis (Walckenaer 1837) [=Mygale javanensis] ZZ08
    |         |--S. arndsti (Schmidt & von Wirth 1991) ZZ08
    |         |--S. jiafu Zhu & Zhang 2008 ZZ08
    |         |--S. peerboomi (Schmidt 1999) ZZ08
    |         |--S. stirlingi Hogg 1901 ZZ08
    |         |--S. xinhuaensis Zhu & Zhang 2008 ZZ08
    |         `--S. xinping Zhu & Zhang 2008 ZZ08
    `--Theraphosinae P-M02
         |  i. s.: Iracema cabocla Pérez-Miles 2000 P-M02
         |         Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell 1894) P-M02
         |         Acanthoscurria Auss. 1871 P-M02, T94
         |           |--A. cordubensis Thorell 1894 T94
         |           |--A. gomesiana J-GP07
         |           |--A. sternalis Pocock 1903 P-M02
         |           `--A. suina Pocock 1903 P-M02
         |         Theraphosa Thorell 1870 JD-S07
         |           `--T. leblondi Latreille 1804 MU90
         |--Euathlus Ausserer 1875 FNB08
         |    `--E. vulpinus (Karsch 1880) FNB08
         |--Paraphysa Simon 1892 FNB08
         |    `--P. scrofa Molina 1788 FNB08
         `--+--Maraca Pérez-Miles 2006 FNB08
            |    `--M. horrida (Schmidt 1994) FNB08
            |--Kochiana Fukushima & Nagahama 2008 FNB08
            |    `--*K. brunnipes (Koch 1842) (see below for synonymy) FNB08
            |--Plesiopelma Pocock 1901 FNB08
            |    |--P. insulare (Mello-Leitão 1923) FNB08
            |    `--P. longisternale (Schiapelli & Gerschman 1942) FNB08
            |--Homoeomma Ausserer 1871 FNB08
            |    |--H. montanum (Mello-Leitão 1923) FNB08
            |    |--H. stradlingi Pickard-Cambridge 1881 FNB08
            |    `--H. uruguayense (Mello-Leitão 1946) P-M02
            |--+--Melloleitaoina Gerschman & Schiapelli 1960 FNB08
            |  |    `--M. crassifemur Gerschman & Schiapelli 1960 FNB08
            |  `--Tmesiphantes Simon 1892 FNB08
            |       `--T. nubilus Simon 1892 FNB08
            |--Grammostola Simon 1892 FNB08
            |    |--G. actaeon (Pocock 1903) FNB08
            |    |--G. iheringi (Keyserling 1891) FF08
            |    |--G. mollicoma (Ausserer 1875) P-M02
            |    |--G. pulchripes (Simon 1891) P-M02
            |    `--G. schulzei (Schmidt 1994) FF08
            `--+--Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 FNB08
               |    |--C. elegans Simon 1889 FNB08
               |    |--C. nogueiranetoi Fukushima et al. 2005 FNB08
               |    `--C. sellatus (Simon 1889) FNB08
               `--+--Chromatopelma Schmidt 1995 FNB08
                  |    `--C. cyaneopubescens (Strand 1907) FNB08
                  `--Hapalopus Ausserer 1875 FNB08
                       `--H. formosus Ausserer 1875 FNB08

Theraphosidae incertae sedis:
  Aphonopelma FF08
    |--A. chalcodes Chamberlin 1940 BFSJ08
    |--A. hageni (Strand 1906) [=Eurypelma hageni, Avicularia hageni] J98
    `--A. hentzi (Girard 1852) [=Dugesiella hentzi] BFSJ08
  Selenotholus B96
  Selenotypus plumipes B96
  Sason Simon 1889 [incl. Sarpedon Cambr. 1883 (preoc.)] K92
    `--S. robustum (Cambr. 1883) [=Sarpedon robustum] K92
  Poecilotheria Simon 1885 [incl. Scurria Koch 1850 non Gray 1847] K92
    |--P. fasciata (Latreille 1804) [=Mygale fasciata] K92
    `--P. miranda BB14
  Megaphobema MU90
  Ephebopus MU90
  Hysterocrates [incl. Hysterocratella Strand 1906] J98
    |--H. greeffi (Karsch 1884) [incl. H. maximus Strand 1906] J98
    |--H. robustus Pocock 1899 [incl. H. robustus var. sulcifera Strand 1908, H. robustus sulcifer] J98
    `--H. weileri Strand 1906 [=H. (*Hysterocratella) weileri] J98
  Phormictopus cancerides (Latreille 1806) [incl. P. cancerides tenuispina Strand 1906] J98
  Phormingochilus fuchsi Strand 1906 J98
  Lyroscelus Cambridge 1901 B06
    `--*L. bonhotei Cambridge 1901 B06
  Acanthopelma B06
    |--A. maculata Banks 1906 B06
    `--A. rufescens B06
  Cyrtopholis Sim. 1892 T94
    `--C. antillana Thorell 1894 T94
  Lasiodora Koch 1850 T94
    `--L. weijenberghii Thorell 1894 T94
  Lycinus Thorell 1894 T94
    `--*L. longipes Thorell 1894 T94
  Brachypelma FF08
    |--B. klaasi (Schmidt & Krause 1994) FF08
    `--B. smithii Simon 1891 MU90
  Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 [incl. Pseudoligoxystre Vol 2001] G11
    |  i. s.: *O. auratum Vellard 1924 G11
    |         O. argentinense (Mello-Leitão 1941) BFSJ08
    |--O. caatinga Guadanucci 2007 G11
    `--+--O. mineirum Guadanucci 2011 G11
       `--+--+--O. rufoniger Guadanucci 2007 G11
          |  `--O. tucuruiense Guadanucci 2007 G11    
          `--+--O. diamantinensis Bertani et al. 2009 G11
             `--+--O. bolivianum (Vol 2001) [=*Pseudoligoxystre bolivianum] G11
                `--O. dominguense Guadanucci 2007 G11
  Catumiri uruguayense Guadanucci 2004 BFSJ08
  Encyocratella olivacea Strand 1907 [incl. Xenodendrophila gabrielli Gallon 2003] BFSJ08
  Cenobiopelma Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1941 G11
    `--C. mimeticum Mello-Leitão & Arlé 1941 [=Oligoxystre mimeticum] G11
  Holothele rondoni (Lucas & Bücherl 1972) G11
  Guyruita cerrado Guadanucci et al. 2007 G11
  Cyclosterorum elegans V09
  Bolostromus suspectus V09
  Ceratogyrus bechuanicus Purcell 1902 JD-S07, WS02
  Euphrictus JD-S07
  Annandaliella JD-S07

Avicularia Lamarck 1818 FNB08 [=Eurypelma Koch 1850 FNB08, Mygale Lamarck 1802 non Cuvier 1800 FNB08; Aviculariinae P-M02]

*Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus 1758) FNB08 [=Aranea avicularia FNB08, *Eurypelma avicularia FNB08, *Mygale avicularia FNB08; incl. Avicularia canceridea K92]

Chilobrachys guangxiensis (Yin & Tan 2000) [=Plesiophrictus guangxiensis; incl. C. jingzhao Zhu, Song & Li 2001] ZZ08

Haplopelma schmidti von Wirth 1991 [incl. Selenocosmia huwena Wang et al. 1993, H. huwenum, Ornithoctonus huwena] ZZ08

*Kochiana brunnipes (Koch 1842) [=Mygale brunnipes, Avicularia brunnipes, Eurypelma brunnipes, Mygale brunneipes] FNB08

Selenocosmia Ausserer 1871 [incl. Chilocosmia Schmidt & von Wirth 1992, Phlogius Simon 1887, Selenopelma Schmidt & Krause 1995] ZZ08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185–189.

[BFSJ08] Bertani, R., C. S. Fukushima & P. I. da Silva Júnior. 2008. Mating behavior of Sickius longibulbi (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Ischnocolinae), a spider that lacks spermathecae. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 331–335.

[BB14] Bloom, T., G. Binford, L. A. Esposito, G. A. Garcia, I. Peterson, A. Nishida, K. Loubet-Senear & I. Agnarsson. 2014. Discovery of two new species of eyeless spiders within a single Hispaniola cave. Journal of Arachnology 42 (2): 148–154.

[B96] Brunet, B. 1996. Spiderwatch: A Guide to Australian Spiders. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FF08] Ferretti, N. E., & A. A. Ferrero. 2008. Courtship and mating behavior of Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994) (Araneae, Theraphosidae), a burrowing tarantula from Argentina. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 480–483.

[FNB08] Fukushima, C. S., R. H. Nagahama & R. Bertani. 2008. The identity of Mygale brunnipes C. L. Koch 1842 (Araneae, Theraphosidae), with a redescription of the species and the description of a new genus. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 402–410.

[G11] Guadanucci, J. P. L. 2011. Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 320–326.

[J98] Jäger, P. 1998. Das Typenmaterial der Spinnentiere (Arachnida: Acari, Amblypygi, Araneae, Opiliones, Pseudoscorpiones, Scorpiones, Uropygi) aus dem Museum Wiesbaden. Jahrbuecher des Nassauischen Vereins fuer Naturkunde 119: 81–91.

[J-GP07] Jiménez-Guri, E., H. Philippe, B. Okamura & P. W. H. Holland. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science 317: 116–118.

[JD-S07] Jocqué, R., & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2007. Spider Families of the World. Royal Museum for Central Africa: Tervuren (Belgium).

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267–310.

[MU90] Marshall, S. D., & G. W. Uetz. 1990. Incorporation of urticating hairs into silk: a novel defense mechanism in two Neotropical tarantulas (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 18: 143–150.

[PCBFF08] Pedroso, D. R., R. L. Cerqueira Baptista & P. S. Fiúza Ferreira. 2008. Trechona rufa (Araneae, Dipluridae): new status, redescription and neotype designation with notes on the genus. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 360–367.

[P-M02] Pérez-Miles, F. 2002. The occurrence of abdominal urticating hairs during development in Theraphosinae (Araneae, Theraphosidae): phylogenetic implications. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 316–320.

[SP10] Santos, R., & C. E. Prieto. 2010. Los Assamiidae (Opiliones: Assamiidae) de Río Muni (Guinea Ecuatorial), con la descripción de ocho nuevas especies. Revista de Biologia Tropical 58 (1): 203–243.

[T94] Thorell, T. 1894. Förteckning öfver Arachnider från Java och närgränsande öar, insamlade af docenten D:r Carl Aurivillius; jemte beskrifingar å några sydasiatiska och sydamerikanska Spindlar. Bihang till K. Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 20 pt 4 (4): 1–63.

[V09] Verdcourt, B. (ed.) 2009. Additions to the Wild Fauna and Flora of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. XXVI. Miscellaneous records. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 183–194.

[WS02] Whitmore, C., R. Slotov, T. E. Crouch & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savanna reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 344–356.

[ZZ08] Zhu, M.-S., & R. Zhang. 2008. Revision of the theraphosid spiders from China (Araneae: Mygalomorphae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 425–447.

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