Polyrhachis

Fish-hook ant Polyrhachis bihamata, copyright Melvyn Yeo.


Belongs within: Formicinae.

Polyrhachis is a genus of often notably spinose ants, most commonly terrestrial though some species are associated with trees.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with 12 segments; metapleural gland absent; spines or sharp angles present on propodeum and petiolar node; first tergite approximately half length of gaster.

<==Polyrhachis Smith 1857 K13
    |--P. (Polyrhachis) K13
    |    |--*P. (P.) bihamata (Drury 1773) [=Formica bihamata] K13
    |    `--P. (P.) sexspinosa (Latreille 1802) [=Formica sexspinosa, Myrma (P.) sexspinosa] K13
    |--P. (Campomyrma) H09
    |    |--P. (C.) equina N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. (C.) femorata H09
    |    |--P. (C.) gravis H09
    |    |--P. (C.) hashimotoi K13
    |    |--P. (C.) hirsuta H09
    |    |--P. (C.) leae H09
    |    |--P. (C.) macropa H09
    |    |--P. (C.) ops H09
    |    |--P. (C.) phryne H09
    |    |--P. (C.) pyrrhus H09
    |    |--P. (C.) schwiedlandi H09
    |    |--P. (C.) shixingensis K13
    |    |--P. (C.) sidnica H09
    |    `--P. (C.) xiphias Smith 1863 [=P. (Hagiomyrma) xiphias] K13
    |--P. (Chariomyrma) K13
    |    |--P. (C.) aurea H09
    |    |    |--P. a. aurea E14
    |    |    `--P. a. fiorii Emery 1914 E14
    |    |--P. (C.) constricta Emery 1897 K13
    |    `--P. (C.) sokolova Forel 1902 [=P. (Hagiomyrma) sokolova; incl. P. sokolova degener] K13
    |--P. (Hagiomyrma Wheeler 1911) K13
    |    |--+--P. (*H.) ammon (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) ammonoeides Roger 1863 [=P. ammon r. ammonoeides; incl. P. chalchas Forel 1907] K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) angusta Forel 1902 [=P. ammon r. angusta] K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) aurora Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) brisbanensis Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) brutella Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) burwelli Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) callima Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) conciliata Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) cracenta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) dougcooki Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) elegantula Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) feehani Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) semiaurata Mayr 1876 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) uncaria Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  `--P. (H.) vernoni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |--P. (H.) metella Smith 1860 K13
    |    |--+--P. (H.) anderseni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) archeri Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) clarki Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) crawleyi Forel 1916 [=P. (H.) ammonoeides var. crawleyi] K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) denticulata Karavaiev 1927 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) electra Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) hoffmanni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) melanura Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) penelope Forel 1895 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) pilbara Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) placida Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) seducta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) semiobscura Donisthorpe 1944 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) stricta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) tanami Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) tenebra Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  `--P. (H.) weiri Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |--+--P. (H.) bohemia Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) capeyorkensis Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) injinooi Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) isolata Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) lachesis Forel in Emery 1897 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) lydiae Forel 1902 [=P. schenki r. lydiae] K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) paxilla Smith 1863 [=P. paxillus; incl. P. lachesis maeandrifera Emery 1897] K13
    |    |  `--P. (H.) schenkii Forel 1886 [=P. schencki, P. schenckii, P. schenki] K13
    |    |--+--P. (H.) darlingtoni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) nourlangie Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |  |--P. (H.) thusnelda Forel 1902 K13
    |    |  `--P. (H.) trapezoidea Mayr 1876 [=P. (H.) ammon r. trapezoidea] K13
    |    `--+--P. (H.) diversa Kohout 2013 K13
    |       `--P. (H.) tubifera Forel 1902 K13
    |--P. (Hedomyrma) K13
    |    |--P. (H.) calliope Emery 1900 K13
    |    `--P. (H.) trophima Smith 1863 [=P. trophimus, P. (Chariomyrma) trophima, P. (Hagiomyrma) trophima] K13
    |--P. (Myrma Billberg 1820) N-ZLI11, K13
    |    |--P. (M.) illaudata N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. (M.) obesior N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. (M.) striata Mayr 1862 N-ZLI11, B03
    |    `--P. (M.) vindex N-ZLI11
    `--P. (Myrmhopla) arachne Emery 1896 N-ZLI11, B03

Polyrhachis incertae sedis:
  P. abdominalis (Smith 1858) [incl. P. achilles Forel 1893, P. phyllophilus Smith 1861] B03
  P. affinis Smith 1858 [incl. P. vicina Roger 1863] B03
  P. armata (Le Guill. 1841) (see below for synonymy) B03
  P. becarii N-ZLI11
  P. bellicosa Smith 1859 B03
  P. bicolor Smith 1858 B03
  P. binghami Forel 1893 B03
  P. carinata [=Formica carinata] E14
  P. ceylonensis Emery 1893 [=P. hippomanes ceylonensis] B03
  P. chalybea Smith 1857 B03
  P. clypeata Mayr 1862 [incl. P. indica Mayr 1870] B03
  P. convexa Roger 1863 B03
  P. craddocki Bingham 1903 B03
  P. dives Smith 1857 B03
  P. fortis Emery 1893 B03
  P. frauenfeldi Mayr 1862 B03
  P. furcata Smith 1858 [incl. P. furcata var. tenella] B03
  P. gracilior Forel 1893 [=P. furcata gracilior] B03
  P. guerini [incl. P. exul Emery 1883] E14
  P. halidayi Emery 1889 E89
  P. hamulata Emery 1887 [=P. sumatrensis hamulata] B03
  P. hauxwelli Bingham 1903 B03
  P. hodgsoni Forel 1902 B03
  P. horni Emery 1901 B03
  P. incerta K13
  P. intermedia Forel 1886 [=P. mayri intermedia] B03
  P. jerdoni Forel 1893 B03
  P. laevissima Smith 1858 [incl. P. globularia Mayr 1867] B03
  P. lamellidens B03
  P. levigata Smith 1857 B03
  P. lysistrata K13
  P. mayri Roger 1863 B03
  P. mutata Smith 1858 [incl. P. mutata ajax Forel 1893] B03
  P. nigropilosa N-ZLI11
  P. obtusa C08
  P. oedipus Forel 1893 B03
  P. phipsoni Forel 1894 B03
  P. prometheus K13
  P. proxima Roger 1863 B03
  P. punctillata Roger 1863 (see below for synonymy) B03
  P. rastellata Latr. 1802 [incl. P. busiris Smith 1861, P. euryalus Smith 1861] B03
  P. rastrata Emery 1889 E89
  P. rupicapra Roger 1863 B03
  P. rupifes N-ZLI11
  P. selene Emery 1889 E89 [incl. P. selene obtusata B03]
  P. simplex Mayr 1862 [incl. P. spiniger Mayr 1879] B03
  P. striatorugosa Mayr 1862 B03
  P. thompsoni Bingham 1903 B03
  P. thrinax Roger 1863 [incl. P. thrinax var. javana, P. thrinax var. lancearius] B03
  P. tibialis Smith 1858 [incl. P. acasta Smith 1861, P. argenteus Mayr 1862, P. caligata Emery 1894] B03
  P. tubericeps Forel 1893 B03
  P. venus Forel 1893 B03
  P. wroughtoni Forel 1894 B03
  P. yerburyi Forel 1893 B03
  P. ypsilon Emery 1886 B03

Polyrhachis armata (Le Guill. 1841) [=Formica armata; incl. P. defensus Smith 1857, P. armata var. minor Forel 1886, P. pandarus Smith 1857] B03

Polyrhachis punctillata Roger 1863 [incl. P. punctillata fergusoni Forel 1902, P. punctillata var. smythiesi Forel 1894, P. subpilosa Emery 1894] B03

Polyrhachis (*Hagiomyrma) ammon (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica ammon, Myrma (*H.) ammon; incl. Polyrhachis ammon var. angustata Forel 1902] K13

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885-87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Cal├ędonie & des ├«les Loyalty. In Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV, pp. 393-436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[K13] Kohout, R. J. 2013. Revision of Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) Wheeler, 1911 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum—Nature 56 (2): 487–577.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

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