Fish-hook ant Polyrhachis bihamata, copyright Melvyn Yeo.

Belongs within: Camponotini.

Polyrhachis is a genus of often notably spinose ants, most commonly terrestrial though some species are associated with trees. It has been divided between numerous subgenera of which members of the type subgenus bear spines on both the pro- and mesonotum, as well as two long spines atop the columnar petiole.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Antenna with 12 segments; metapleural gland absent; spines or sharp angles present on propodeum and petiolar node; first tergite approximately half length of gaster.

Polyrhachis Smith 1857 K13
    |--*P. (Polyrhachis) bihamata (Drury 1773) [=Formica bihamata] K13
    |--P. (Campomyrma) K13
    |    |--P. (C.) equina N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. (C.) femorata Smith 1858 H09, TB85 [=P. femoratus TB85; incl. Camponotus emeryi Forel 1880 TB85]
    |    |--P. (C.) gravis Clark 1930 H09, TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) hashimotoi K13
    |    |--P. (C.) hirsuta Mayr 1876 H09, TB85
    |    |    |--P. h. hirsuta TB85
    |    |    `--P. h. quinquedentata Viehmeyer 1925 TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) inconspicua Emery 1887 H13, TB85
    |    |    |--P. i. inconspicua TB85
    |    |    `--P. i. subnitens Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) leae Forel 1913 H09, TB85
    |    |    |--P. l. leae TB85
    |    |    `--P. l. cedarensis Forel 1915 TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) macropa H09
    |    |--P. (C.) ops Forel 1907 H09, TB85 [=P. micans ops TB85]
    |    |--P. (C.) phryne Forel 1907 H09, TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) pyrrhus Forel 1910 H09, TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) schwiedlandi Forel 1902 H09, TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) shixingensis Wu & Wang 1995 K13, Z01
    |    |--P. (C.) sidnica Mayr 1866 H09, TB85
    |    |    |--P. s. sidnica TB85
    |    |    |--P. s. perthensis Crawley 1922 TB85
    |    |    `--P. s. tambourinensis Forel 1915 TB85
    |    `--P. (C.) xiphias Smith 1863 [=P. (Hagiomyrma) xiphias] K13
    |--P. (Chariomyrma Forel 1915) K13, TB85
    |    |--P. (*C.) guerini Roger 1863 TB85 [incl. P. exul Emery 1883 E14]
    |    |    |--P. g. guerini TB85
    |    |    |--P. g. lata Emery 1895 TB85
    |    |    |--P. g. pallescens Mayr 1876 TB85
    |    |    `--P. g. vermiculosa Mayr 1876 TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) aurea Mayr 1876 H09, TB85 [=P. guerini aurea TB85]
    |    |    |--P. a. aurea TB85
    |    |    |--P. a. depilis Emery 1897 TB85
    |    |    `--P. a. fiorii Emery 1914 E14
    |    |--P. (C.) constricta Emery 1897 K13
    |    |--P. (C.) hookeri Lowne 1865 K13, TB85
    |    |    |--P. h. hookeri TB85
    |    |    |--P. h. aerea Forel 1902 TB85
    |    |    |--P. h. lownei Forel 1895 TB85
    |    |    `--P. h. obscura Forel 1895 TB85
    |    |--P. (C.) senilis Forel 1902 H13, TB85 [=P. gab senilis TB85]
    |    `--P. (C.) sokolova Forel 1902 K13 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. (Hagiomyrma Wheeler 1911) K13
    |    |--P. (H.) metella Smith 1860 K13
    |    |--P. ammon group K13
    |    |    |--P. (*H.) ammon (Fabricius 1775) (see below for synonymy) K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) ammonoeides Roger 1863 [=P. ammon r. ammonoeides; incl. P. chalchas Forel 1907] K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) angusta Forel 1902 [=P. ammon r. angusta] K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) aurora Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) brisbanensis Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) brutella Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) burwelli Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) callima Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) conciliata Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) cracenta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) dougcooki Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) elegantula Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) feehani Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) semiaurata Mayr 1876 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) uncaria Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    `--P. (H.) vernoni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |--P. penelope group K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) anderseni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) archeri Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) clarki Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) crawleyi Forel 1916 [=P. (H.) ammonoeides var. crawleyi] K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) denticulata Karavaiev 1927 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) electra Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) hoffmanni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) melanura Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) penelope Forel 1895 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) pilbara Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) placida Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) seducta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) semiobscura Donisthorpe 1944 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) stricta Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) tanami Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) tenebra Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    `--P. (H.) weiri Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |--P. schenkii group K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) bohemia Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) capeyorkensis Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) injinooi Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) isolata Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) lachesis Forel in Emery 1897 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) lydiae Forel 1902 [=P. schenki r. lydiae] K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) paxilla Smith 1863 [=P. paxillus; incl. P. lachesis maeandrifera Emery 1897] K13
    |    |    `--P. (H.) schenkii Forel 1886 [=P. (Hedomyrma) schencki, P. schenckii, P. schenki] K13
    |    |--P. trapezoidea group K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) darlingtoni Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) nourlangie Kohout 2013 K13
    |    |    |--P. (H.) thusnelda Forel 1902 K13
    |    |    `--P. (H.) trapezoidea Mayr 1876 [=P. (H.) ammon r. trapezoidea] K13
    |    `--P. tubifera group K13
    |         |--P. (H.) diversa Kohout 2013 K13
    |         `--P. (H.) tubifera Forel 1902 K13
    |--P. (Hedomyrma Forel 1915) K13, TB85
    |    |--P. (*H.) ornata Mayr 1876 TB85
    |    |--P. (H.) calliope Emery 1900 K13
    |    `--P. (H.) trophima Smith 1863 [=P. trophimus, P. (Chariomyrma) trophima, P. (Hagiomyrma) trophima] K13
    |--P. (Hirtomyrma) bamaga K13
    |--P. (Myrma Billberg 1820) N-ZLI11, K13
    |    |--P. (M.) illaudata Walker 1859 N-ZLI11, Z01 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--P. (M.) obesior N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. (M.) striata Mayr 1862 N-ZLI11, B03
    |    `--P. (M.) vindex N-ZLI11
    `--P. (Myrmhopla) K13
         |--P. (M.) arachne Emery 1896 N-ZLI11, B03
         `--P. (M.) sexspinosa (Latreille 1802) [=Formica sexspinosa, Myrma (Polyrhachis) sexspinosa] K13

Polyrhachis incertae sedis:
  P. abdominalis Smith 1858 [incl. P. achilles Forel 1893, P. phyllophilus Smith 1861] B03
  P. aeschyle Forel 1915 [=P. (Hedomyrma) aeschyle] TB85
  P. affinis Smith 1858 B03
  P. anguliceps Viehmeyer 1925 [=P. (Hedomyrma) anguliceps] TB85
  P. appendiculata Emery 1893 TB85
    |--P. a. appendiculata TB85
    `--P. a. schoopae Forel 1902 TB85
  P. arcuata (Le Guillou 1841) [=Formica arcuata] TB85
  P. armata (Le Guill. 1841) (see below for synonymy) B03
  P. barnardi Clark 1928 [=P. (Myrmhopla) barnardi] TB85
  P. barretti Clark 1928 [=P. (Hedomyrma) barretti] TB85
  P. becarii N-ZLI11
  P. bedoti Forel 1902 TB85
  P. bellicosa Smith 1859 [=P. bellicosus] TB85
  P. bicolor Smith 1858 B03
  P. binghami Forel 1893 B03
  P. carinata [=Formica carinata] E14
  P. cataulacoidea Stitz 1911 TB85
  P. ceylonensis Emery 1893 [=P. hippomanes ceylonensis] B03
  P. chalybea Smith 1857 B03
  P. chrysothorax Viehmeyer 1925 [=P. (Hedomyrma) chrysothorax] TB85
  P. cleopatra Forel 1902 TB85
  P. clio Forel 1902 TB85
  P. clotho Forel 1902 TB85
  P. clypeata Mayr 1862 [incl. P. indica Mayr 1870] B03
  P. contemta Mayr 1876 TB85
  P. convexa Roger 1863 B03
  P. craddocki Bingham 1903 B03
  P. daemeli Mayr 1876 TB85
    |--P. d. daemeli TB85
    |--P. d. argentosa Forel 1902 TB85
    `--P. d. exlex Forel 1915 [=P. (Hedomyrma) daemeli exlex] TB85
  P. decumbens WBF16
  P. dives Smith 1857 (see below for synonymy) Z01
  P. doddi Donisthorpe 1938 [=P. (Cyrtomyrma) doddi] TB85
  P. erato Forel 1902 TB85
  P. euterpe Forel 1902 TB85
  P. euthiacaena Zhou & Zheng 1997 Z01
  P. flavibasis Clark 1930 [=P. (Campomyrma) flavibasis] TB85
  P. fortis Emery 1893 B03
  P. frauenfeldi Mayr 1862 B03
  P. froggatti Forel 1910 TB85
  P. furcata Smith 1858 [incl. P. furcata var. tenella] B03
  P. fuscipes Mayr 1862 TB85
  P. gab Forel 1880 [=P. guerini gab] TB85
    |--P. g. gab (see below for synonymy) TB85
    `--P. g. aegra Forel 1915 [=P. (Chariomyrma) gab aegra] TB85
  P. glabrinota Clark 1930 [=P. (Myrmhopla) glabrinotum] TB85
  P. gracilior Forel 1893 [=P. furcata gracilior] B03
  P. halidayi Emery 1887 B03
  P. hamulata Emery 1887 [=P. sumatrensis hamulata] B03
  P. hauxwelli Bingham 1903 B03
  P. hecuba Forel 1902 TB85
  P. heinlethii Forel 1895 TB85
    |--P. h. heinlethii TB85
    `--P. h. sophiae Forel 1902 TB85
  P. hermione Emery 1895 TB85
    |--P. h. hermione TB85
    `--P. h. cupreata Emery 1895 TB85
  P. hexacantha (Erichson 1842) [=Formica hexacantha] TB85
  P. hodgsoni Forel 1902 B03
  P. horni Emery 1901 B03
  P. humerosa Emery 1921 [=P. (Hedomyrma) humerosa] TB85
  P. incerta K13
  P. intermedia Forel 1886 [=P. mayri intermedia] B03
  P. ithona Smith 1860 (see below for synonymy) TB85
  P. jacksoniana Roger 1863 TB85
  P. jerdoni Forel 1893 B03
  P. jianghuaensis Wang & Wu 1991 Z01
  P. kershawi Clark 1930 [=P. (Hedomyrma) kershawi] TB85
  P. laevissima Smith 1858 [incl. P. globularia Mayr 1867] B03
  P. lamellidens Smith 1874 Z01
  P. latona Wheeler 1909 [=P. (Myrma) latona] Z01
  P. latreillii (Guérin-Meneville 1831) [=Formica latreillii] TB85
  P. levigata Smith 1857 B03
  P. levior Roger 1863 [=P. laevissima Smith 1859 non Smith 1858; incl. P. australis Mayr 1870] TB85
  P. lombokensis Emery 1898 TB85
    |--P. l. lombokensis TB85
    `--P. l. yarrabahensis Forel 1915 [=P. (Myrmatopa) lombokensis yarrabahensis] TB85
  P. lysistrata Santschi 1920 [=Polyrhachys (Myrmothrinax) lysistrata] TB85
  P. machaon Santschi 1920 [=Polyrhachys (Hedomyrma) machaon] TB85
  P. mackayi Donisthorpe 1938 [=P. (Cyrtomyrma) mackayi] TB85
  P. macropus Wheeler 1916 [=P. (Campomyrma) longipes Wheeler 1915 non P. longipes Smith 1858] TB85
  P. micans Mayr 1876 TB85
  P. mjobergi Forel 1915 [=P. (Hedomyrma) mjobergi] TB85
  P. mutata Smith 1858 [incl. P. mutata ajax Forel 1893] B03
  P. nigropilosa N-ZLI11
  P. nox Donisthorpe 1938 [=P. (Cyrtomyrma) nox] TB85
  P. obtusa C08
  P. oedipus Forel 1893 B03
  P. patiens Santschi 1920 [=P. (Campomyrma) patiens] TB85
  P. phipsoni Forel 1894 B03
  P. polymnia Forel 1902 TB85
    |--P. p. polymnia TB85
    `--P. p. maculata Forel 1915 [=P. (Campomyrma) polymnia maculata] TB85
  P. prometheus Santschi 1920 [=P. (Campomyrma) prometheus] TB85
  P. proxima Roger 1863 B03
  P. pseudothrinax Hung 1967 TB85
  P. punctillata Roger 1863 (see below for synonymy) B03
  P. punctiventris Mayr 1876 TB85
  P. quadricuspis Mayr 1870 TB85
  P. queenslandica Emery 1895 [=P. delicata Crawley 1915] TB85
  P. rastellata (Latreille 1802) TB85 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. r. rastellata TB85
    `--P. r. yorkana forel 1915 [=P. (Cyrtomyrma) rastellata yorkana] TB85
  P. rastrata Emery 1889 B03
  P. relucens (Latreille 1802) [=Formica relucens] TB85
    |--P. r. relucens TB85
    `--P. r. australiae Emery 1887 TB85
  P. rowlandi Forel 1910 TB85
  P. rubigastrica Wang & Wu 1991 Z01
  P. rupicapra Roger 1863 B03
  P. rupifes N-ZLI11
  P. selene Emery 1889 [incl. P. selene obtusata] B03
  P. semipolita André 1896 TB85
    |--P. s. semipolita TB85
    `--P. s. hestia Forel 1911 TB85
  P. sempronia Forel 1907 TB85
  P. simplex Mayr 1862 [incl. P. spiniger Mayr 1879] B03
  P. striatorugosa Mayr 1862 B03
  P. subpilosa Emery 1895 Z01
  P. templi Forel 1902 TB85
  P. terpsichore Forel 1893 TB85
    |--P. t. terpsichore TB85
    |--P. t. elegans Forel 1910 TB85
    `--P. t. rufifemur Forel 1907 TB85
  P. thais Forel 1910 TB85
  P. thalia Forel 1902 TB85
    |--P. t. thalia TB85
    `--P. t. io Forel 1915 [=P. (Campomyrma) thalia io] TB85
  P. thompsoni Bingham 1903 B03
  P. thrinax Roger 1863 [incl. P. thrinax var. javana, P. thrinax var. lancearius] B03
  P. tibialis Smith 1858 [incl. P. acasta Smith 1861, P. argenteus Mayr 1862, P. caligata Emery 1894] B03
  P. townsvillei Donisthorpe 1938 [=P. (Cyrtomyrma) townsvillei] TB85
  P. tubericeps Forel 1893 B03
  P. turneri Forel 1895 TB85
  P. urania Forel 1902 TB85
  P. venus Forel 1893 B03
  P. wroughtoni Forel 1894 B03
  P. yerburyi Forel 1893 B03
  P. ypsilon Emery 1886 B03
  P. zimmerae Clark 1941 [=P. (Campomyrma) zimmerae TB85

Polyrhachis armata (Le Guill. 1841) [=Formica armata; incl. P. defensus Smith 1857, P. armata var. minor Forel 1886, P. pandarus Smith 1857] B03

Polyrhachis dives Smith 1857 [=P. (Myrmhopla) dives; incl. P. democles Smith 1861, P. dives var. euclides Forel 1913, P. (Myrmhopla) exulans Clark 1941, P. mutiliae Smith 1861, P. vicina Roger 1863] Z01

Polyrhachis gab gab Forel 1880 [incl. P. comata Crawley 1915 non P. bicolor comata Emery 1911, P. crawleyella Santschi 1916, P. (Chariomyrma) gab tripellis Forel 1915] TB85

Polyrhachis ithona Smith 1860 [=P. ithonus; incl. P. andromache Roger 1863, P. hector Smith 1859 non Smith 1857] TB85

Polyrhachis punctillata Roger 1863 [incl. P. punctillata fergusoni Forel 1902, P. punctillata var. smythiesi Forel 1894] B03

Polyrhachis rastellata (Latreille 1802) TB85 [=Formica rastellata TB85; incl. P. busiris Mayr 1862 Z01, P. euryalus Smith 1861 B03]

Polyrhachis (Chariomyrma) sokolova Forel 1902 K13 [=P. (Hagiomyrma) sokolova K13; incl. P. sokolova degener Forel 1910 K13, TB85]

Polyrhachis (*Hagiomyrma) ammon (Fabricius 1775) [=Formica ammon, Myrma (*H.) ammon; incl. Polyrhachis ammon var. angustata Forel 1902] K13

Polyrhachis (Myrma) illaudata Walker 1859 N-ZLI11, Z01 [incl. P. (M.) duodentata Donisthorpe 1942 Z01, P. (M.) latispinosa Donisthorpe 1942 Z01, P. mayri Roger 1863 Z01]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera vol. 2. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[C08] Ceccarelli, F. S. 2008. Behavioral mimicry in Myrmarachne species (Araneae, Salticidae) from north Queensland, Australia. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 344–351.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H13] Heterick, B. E. 2013. A taxonomic overview and key to the ants of Barrow Island, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 375–404.

[K13] Kohout, R. J. 2013. Revision of Polyrhachis (Hagiomyrma) Wheeler, 1911 (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Formicinae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum—Nature 56 (2): 487–577.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[TB85] Taylor, R. W., & D. R. Brown. 1985. Formicoidea. In: Walton, D. W. (ed.) Zoological Catalogue of Australia vol. 2. Hymenoptera: Formicoidea, Vespoidea and Sphecoidea pp. 1–149. Australian Government Publishing Service: Canberra.

[WBF16] Ward, P. S., B. B. Blaimer & B. L. Fisher. 2016. A revised phylogenetic classification of the ant subfamily Formicinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with resurrection of the genera Colobopsis and Dinomyrmex. Zootaxa 4072 (3): 343–357.

[Z01] Zhou, S. 2001. Ants of Guangxi. Guangxi Normal University Press: Guilin (China).

Last updated: 25 May 2020.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS