Heoclisis fundata, copyright Shaun Winterton.

Belongs within: Myrmeleontiformia.
Contains: Cymothales, Myrmeleontini, Distoleontini, Protoplectrini, Periclystina, Dendroleontina.

The Myrmeleontidae, ant-lions, are a group of lacewings found in arid and semi-arid regions, best known for the conical pits built by the larvae of many species. The larva lies buried in the base of its pit, feeding on any insects that fall in. Most myrmeleontids have antennae that are thickened distally but lack a sharply separated club. An exception is the subfamily Stilbopteryginae, whose members have strongly clubbed antennae, as well as relatively broad wings (New 1985a).

Characters (from New 1985a): Medium-sized to very large; costal area of wings with numerous crossveins and more or less well-defined pterostigma; usually one subcostal crossvein; Sc and R1 fused apically; trichosors absent; ocelli absent; face not markedly lengthened; hindwings not greatly narrowed at base; eyes not divided by transverse sulcus; antennae sometimes very short, always less than half forewing length, sometimes clubbed at or near apex.

<==Myrmeleontidae GE05
    |--Araraipeneurinae P02
    |--Echthromyrmex [Echthromyrmicinae] N85a
    |--Stilbopteryginae [Stilbopterygidae] N85a
    |    |--Stilbopteryx N85a
    |    `--Aeropteryx N85a
    |--Paleoleontinae [Palaeoleontidae] P02
    |    |--Metahemerobius P02
    |    |--Palaeoleon ferrogeneticus GE05
    |    `--Samsonileon P02
    |--Palpares HM55 [Palparinae N85a]
    |    |--P. latipennis Rambur 1842 (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |    |--P. obscuripennis Schmidt 1907 [=Palparellus obscuripennis] HM55
    |    |--P. obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |    `--P. weelei I92
    |--Acanthaclisinae [Acanthaclisini] N85c
    |    |--Mestressa Navás 1914 N85c
    |    |    `--M. subfasciata (Banks 1913) [=Acanthaclisis subfasciatus; incl. *M. misera Navás 1914] N85c
    |    |--Arcuaplectron New 1985 N85c
    |    |    `--*A. woocallensis New 1985 N85c
    |    |--Cosina Navás 1912 N85c
    |    |    |--*C. mclachlani (van der Weele 1904) [=Acanthaclisis mclachlani, Fadrina mclachlani] N85c
    |    |    |--C. annulata (Esben-Petersen 1915) [=Acanthaclisis annulata] N85c
    |    |    |--C. distivena New 1985 N85c
    |    |    |--C. maculata Esben-Petersen 1918 N85c
    |    |    |--C. nana New 1985 N85c
    |    |    `--C. vaga Navás 1914 N85c
    |    `--Heoclisis Navás 1923 N85c
    |         |--*H. fundata (Walker 1853) (see below for synonymy) N85c
    |         |--H. acuta (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis acuta] N85c
    |         |--H. angustipennis New 1985 N85c
    |         |--H. conspurcata (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Acanthaclisis conspurcata, Fadrina conspurcata] N85c
    |         |--H. fulva (Esben-Petersen 1912) [=Acanthaclisis fulva; incl. A. peterseni Tillyard 1916] N85c
    |         |--H. fulvifusa (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis fulvifusa] N85c
    |         |--H. ramosa New 1985 N85c
    |         `--H. tillyardi (Kimmins 1939) [=Acanthaclisis tillyardi] N85c
    `--Myrmeleontinae [Dendroleoninae, Dendroleontinae, Myrmeleoninae] N85c
         |--Myrmeleontini N85c
         |--Distoleontini N85c
         |--Protoplectrini N85a
         `--Dendroleontini [Dendroleonini] N85b
              |  i. s.: Anomaloplectron Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
              |           `--*A. lineatipenne Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
              |         Platyleon Esben-Petersen 1923 N85b
              |           `--*P. froggatti Esben-Petersen 1923 N85b
              |         Indoclystus Banks 1941 N85b
              |           `--*I. singularis [=Periclystus singularis] N85b
              |         Csiroleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*C. tumidipalpus New 1985 N85b
              |         Fusoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*F. stigmatus New 1985 N85b
              |         Riekoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           |--*R. convergens New 1985 N85b
              |           `--R. furcatus New 1985 N85b
              |         Parvoleon New 1985 N85b
              |           `--*P. minimus New 1985 N85b
              |--Periclystina N85b
              |--Dendroleontina N85b
              `--Acanthoplectron Esben-Petersen 1918 [Acanthoplectrina, Acanthoplectrini] N85b
                   |--*A. tenellum Esben-Petersen 1918 N85b
                   `--A. umbratus New 1985 N85b

Myrmeleontidae incertae sedis:
  Porrerus GE05
  Brachynemurus [Brachynemurini] C90
  Cymothales HM55
  Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) (see below for synonymy) HM55
    |--C. d. distincta HM55
    `--C. d. lineatipennis (Péringuey 1910) [=Acanthaclisis lineatipennis, Sogra lineatipennis] HM55
  Sograssa Navas 1924 HM55
    |--S. felina (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Acanthaclisis felina, Centroclisis felina, Sogra felina] HM55
    `--S. superba (Navas 1912) [=Sogra superba] HM55
  Avia nigrata (Navas 1912) [=Sogra nigrata] HM55
  Cueta HM55
    |--C. luteola Hölzel 1972 M03
    `--C. punctatissima (Gerstaecker 1893) [=Myrmeleon punctatissimus, Nesoleon punctatissimus] HM55
  Banyutus HM55
    |--B. balli HM55
    |--B. lethalis (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon lethalis, Formicaleo lethalis] HM55
    `--B. lituratus Navas 1936 HM55
  Nemoleon HM55
    |--N. filiformis (Gerstaecker 1885) [=Myrmeleon filiformis, Naldanus filiformis] HM55
    `--N. notatus (Rambur 1842) [=Myrmeleon notatus; incl. Ne. alcidice Banks 1911, Naldanus alcidice] HM55
  Gandulus iners Navas 1936 HM55
  Griala humeralis (Navas 1926) [=Naldanus humeralis, Landanus humeralis] HM55
  Vessa guttata Navas 1930 HM55

Centroclisis distincta (Rambur 1842) [=Acanthaclisis distincta, Sogra distincta; incl. S. iracunda Navas 1912, S. mordax Navas 1912, S. perversa Navas 1911] HM55

*Heoclisis fundata (Walker 1853) [=Myrmeleon fundatus, Acanthaclisis fundata; incl. M. subtendens Walker 1853, A. subtendens] N85b

Palpares latipennis Rambur 1842 [incl. Myrmeleon cephalotes Walker 1852, M. furfuraceus Walker 1852, M. inclemens Walker 1852, Palpares praetor Gerstaecker 1893, M. sollicitus Walker in McLachlan 1868, M. subducens Walker in McLachlan 1868] HM55

Palpares obsoletus Gerstaecker 1887 [incl. P. bayeri Navas 1913, P. longicornis Navas 1911, P. paucimaculatus Kirby in Johnston 1902] HM55

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HM55] Handschin, E. & W. Markl. 1955. Neuropteren aus Angola. Diamang Publicações Culturais 27: 65–82.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[M03] Mirmoayedi, A. 2003. Rearing the third stage larva of Cueta luteola Hölzel, 1972 (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae) for the first time in Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 101–104.

[N85a] New, T. R. 1985a. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). I. Introduction, Myrmeleontini, Protoplectrini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 104: 1–90.

[N85b] New, T. R. 1985b. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). II. Dendroleontini. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 105: 1–170.

[N85c] New, T. R. 1985c. A revision of the Australian Myrmeleontidae (Insecta: Neuroptera). III. Distoleontini and Acanthaclisinae. Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 106: 1–159.

[P02] Ponomarenko, A. G. 2002. Superorder Myrmeleontidea Latreille, 1802 (=Neuropteroidea Handlirsch, 1903). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P. & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 176–189. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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