Pachycondyla

Worker of Pachycondyla darwinii, copyright April Nobile/antweb.org.


Belongs within: Ponerinae.

Pachycondyla is a genus of robust, generalised ants.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Clypeus narrowly inserted between frontal lobes, not produced; mandibles triangular; tibia of hind leg with both a large pectinate spur and a smaller simple spur; pretarsal claws of hind leg simple.

<==Pachycondyla Smith 1858 FT08 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*P. (Pachycondyla) crassinoda Latreille 1802 T99, L02 [=Formica crassinoda T99]
    |--P. (Bothroponera Mayr 1862) H09, B03
    |    |--*Bothroponera’ pumicosa B03
    |    |--P. (B.) bispinosa Smith 1858 B03
    |    |--P. (B.) denticulata H09
    |    |--‘Bothroponera’ insularis Emery 1889 E89
    |    |--‘Bothroponera’ krugeri B83
    |    |--P. (B.) piliventris H09
    |    |    |--P. p. piliventris H09
    |    |    `--P. p. regularis H09
    |    |--‘Bothroponera’ rubiginosa (Emery 1889) [=Ponera rubiginosa] B03
    |    |--‘Bothroponera’ rufipes (Jerdon 1851) [=Ponera rufipes] B03
    |    |--‘Bothroponera’ sulcata (Frauenf. 1867) (see below for synonymy) B03
    |    `--‘Bothroponera’ tesserinoda (Mayr 1878) [=Ponera tesserinoda] B03
    |--P. (Brachyponera Emery 1900) FT08
    |    |--*Brachyponera’ senaarensis B03
    |    |--P. (B.) christmasi (Donisthorpe 1935) FT08
    |    |--‘Brachyponera’ jerdoni (Forel 1900) [=Ponera jerdoni] B03
    |    |--P. (B.) lutea (Mayr 1862) H09, K09
    |    |--‘Brachyponera’ luteipes (Mayr 1862) [=Ponera luteipes] B03
    |    `--‘Brachyponera’ nigrita Emery 1894 [=Ponera nigrita] B03
    `--P. (Trachymesopus Emery 1911) FT08
         |--P. (T.) darwinii (Forel 1893) FT08
         |--‘Euponera’ (Trachymesopus) rotundiceps Emery 1914 E14
         `--P. (T.) rufonigra [incl. P. (T.) clarki] H09

Pachycondyla incertae sedis:
  ‘Ponera’ annamita André 1892 [=Ectomomyrmex annamitus] B03
  P. astuta Smith 1858 [=Ectomomyrmex astutus; incl. E. sundaicus Mayr 1867] B03
  *Mesoponera’ caffraria B03
  ‘Mesoponera’ castanea M83
  P. chinensis N-ZLI11
  *Ectomomyrmex’ javanus Mayr 1867 B03
  ‘Ponera’ leeuwenhoeki Forel 1886 [=Ectomomyrmex leeuwenhoeki] B03
  ‘Ectomomyrmex’ maternus Forel 1900 B03
  ‘Ponera’ melanaria Emery 1893 [=Mesoponera melanaria] B03
  P. pilosior T99
  P. rubra N-ZLI11
  P. sakishimensis Terayama 1999 T99
  P. sikorae BS06
  P. solitaria FT08
  ‘Mesoponera’ stigma [=Euponera stigma] WW90
  P. striata MC05
  P. villosa CM07

‘Bothroponera’ sulcata (Frauenf. 1867) [=Ponera sulcata; incl. B. sulcata var. fossulata, B. sulcata var. sulcatotesserinoda] B03

Pachycondyla Smith 1858 FT08 [incl. Ectomomyrmex Mayr 1867 T99, B03, Eumecopone T99, Mesoponera Emery 1901 T99, B03, Neoponera T99, Preadoponera T99, Pseudoneoponera T99, Syntermitopone T99, Termitopone T99, Wadeura T99, Xiphopelta T99]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[B83] Bolton, B. 1983. The Afrotropical dacetine ants (Formicidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History): Entomology series 46 (4): 267–416.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[K09] Kejval, Z. 2009. Taxonomic revision of the genus Chileanthicus Werner (Coleoptera: Anthicidae). Zootaxa 2180: 1–82.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[MC05] Machado, G., P. C. Carrera, A. M. Pomini & A. J. Marsaioli. 2005. Chemical defense in harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones): do benzoquinone secretions deter invertebrate and vertebrate predators? Journal of Chemical Ecology 31 (11): 2519–2539.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1–98.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 4. Three new species of Ponerinae. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 7–15.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

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