Scorpiones

Palaeophonus hunteri, from Fritsch (1904).


Belongs within: Arachnida.
Contains: Bothriuridae, Orthosterni.

The Scorpiones, scorpions, are a highly distinctive group of arachnids in which the pedipalps form large chelae, and the rear section of the opisthosoma is modified to form a mobile 'tail' bearing a terminal sting. Modern scorpions are invariably terrestrial, but aquatic habits have been suggested from the earliest known Silurian-Devonian scorpions such as Palaeoscorpius, Proscorpius and the Protoscorpiones (Giribet et al. 2002).

<==Scorpiones [Apoxypodes, Scorpiniata]
    |--Palaeoscorpius GE02
    `--+--Proscorpius [Palaeoscorpiones] LSE13
       |    `--P. osborni Whitefield 1885 F04
       `--+--Orthosterni LSE13
          `--Protoscorpiones GE02
               |--Dolichophonus GE02
               `--Palaeophonidae GE02
                    |--Allopalaeophonus GE02
                    `--Palaeophonus Thorell & Lindström 1884 LSE13, F04
                         |--P. hunteri Pocock 1902 F04
                         |--P. londonensis Laurie 1889 F04
                         `--P. nuncius Thorell & Lindström 1885 F04

Scorpiones incertae sedis:
  Euscorpius [Euscorpiidae] L03
    |--E. flavicaudis L03
    `--E. italicus SF01
  Anuroctonus GE02
  Uroctonus GE02
  Vaejovidae C90
    |--Paruroctonus C90
    |    |--P. mesaensis C90
    |    `--P. utahensis C90
    `--Vaejovis AS-N08
         |--V. bilineatus Pocock 1898 AS-N08
         |--V. eusthenura SF01
         `--V. spinigerus (Wood 1863) AS-N08
  Mesophonus W70
  Bothriuridae OA02
  Joctonus manicatus Thorell 1876 KK84
  Dacurus galbineus (Koch 1838) [=Centrurus galbineus, C. galbinus (l. c.), Caucon galbineus] K92
  Smeringurus aridus SF01
  Megacormus gertschi SF01
  Brotheas SF01
    |--B. amazonicus Lourenço 1988 L-M-HG08
    `--B. granulatus SF01
  Hemilychas alexandrinus (Hirst 1911) V05
  Broteochactas V-MDR07
    |--B. mapuera Lourenço 1988 L-M-HG08
    `--B. trezzi V-MDR07
  Stoermeroscorpio S07
  Prearcturus S07
  Pseudouroctonus apacheanus (Gertsch & Soleglad 1972) AS-N08
  Diplocentrus [Diplocentridae] C90
    |--D. lesueuri B06
    |--D. ochoterenai SF01
    `--D. peloncillensis Francke 1975 AS-N08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AS-N08] Aguiar, A. P. N., P. L. Santana-Neto, J. R. B. Souza & C. M. R. de Albuquerque. 2008. Relationship between litter characteristics and female size in Tityus stigmurus (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 464-467.

[B06] Banks, N. 1906. Arachnida from the Bahamas. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 22: 185-189.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[F04] Fritsch, A. 1904. Palaeozoische Arachniden. Selestverlag: Prague.

[GE02] Giribet, G., G. D. Edgecombe, W. C. Wheeler & C. Babbitt. 2002. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: A combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data. Cladistics 18: 5-70.

[K92] Karsch, F. 1892. Arachniden von Ceylon und von Minikoy gesammelt von den Herren Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin. Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36 (2): 267-310.

[KK84] Koch, L., & E. Keyserling. 1884-1890. Die Arachniden Australiens nach der Natur beschrieben und abgebildet vol. 2. Bauer & Raspe: Nürnberg.

[LSE13] Legg, D. A., M. D. Sutton & G. D. Edgecombe. 2013. Arthropod fossil data increase congruence of morphological and molecular phylogenies. Nature Communications 4 (2485): 1-7.

[L-M-HG08] Lo-Man-Hung, N. F., T. A. Gardner, M. A. Ribeiro-Júnior, J. Barlow & A. B. Bonaldo. 2008. The value of primary, secondary, and plantation forests for Neotropical epigeic arachnids. Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 394-401.

[L03] Lourenço, W. R. 2003. The first scorpion fossil from the Cretaceous amber of France. New implications for the phylogeny of Chactoidea. Comptes Rendus Palevol 2: 213-219.

[OA02] Ochoa, J. A., & L. E. Acosta. 2002. Orobothriurus atiquipa, a new bothriurid species (Scorpiones) from Lomas in southern Peru. Journal of Arachnology 30: 98-103.

[S07] Shultz, J. W. 2007. A phylogenetic analysis of the arachnid orders based on morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 150 (2): 221-265.

[SF01] Soleglad, M. E., & V. Fet. 2001. Evolution of scorpion orthobothriotaxy: A cladistic approach. Euscorpius 1: 1-38.

[V-MDR07] Villarreal-Manzanilla, O., C. DoNascimiento & C. J. Rodríguez. 2007. Two new species of the enigmatic genus Stenophareus (Opiliones: Laniatores: Stygnidae) from the Venezuelan Guiana Shield. Zootaxa 1471: 43-51.

[V05] Volschenk, E. S. 2005. A new technique for examining surface morphosculpture of scorpions. Journal of Arachnology 33: 820-825.

[W70] Wills, L. J. 1970. The Triassic succession in the central Midlands in its regional setting. Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 126: 225-283.

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