Southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, from the United States Department of Agriculture.

Belongs within: Tylenchina.
Contains: Heteroderinae.

The Tylenchoidea are a group of nematodes including free-living feeders on soil fungi and algae, and parasites (both external and internal) of plant tissues.

Characters (from Maggenti et al. 1987): Lip region generally hexaradiate and distinguished from general body contour. Labial region supported by a cuticularized skeleton that may or may not be well developed. Procorpus generally set off from metacorpus, usually slender and cylindrical. Isthmus narrow and leads to the expanded glandular region almost always wider than the metacorpus. Glandular region consists of three glands ending at the beginning of the intestine or variously overlapping this structure. Phasmids commonly adanal, on the tail or erratically on body.

    |  i. s.: Meloidodera floridensis J02
    |         Ekphymatodera thomasoni J02
    |         Punctodera chalcoensis J02
    |--Belonolaimus [Belonolaimidae] LB02
    |    `--B. longicaudatus KH02
    |--Tylenchidae LB02
    |    |--Tylenchus MM02
    |    |    |--T. davainei MM02
    |    |    |--T. emarginatus Ge02
    |    |    `--T. farwicki MM02
    |    `--Ditylenchus H02
    |         |--D. destructor MM02
    |         |--D. dipsaci Wh02
    |         |--D. myceliophagus Wh02
    |         |--D. phyllobius [=Orrina phyllobius] Wh02
    |         `--D. triformis Ge02
    |--Pratylenchidae LB02
    |    |--Nacobbus [Nacobbinae] Wy02
    |    |    |--N. aberrans Wy02
    |    |    `--N. serendipiticus H02
    |    `--Pratylenchinae Wy02
    |         |--Hirschmaniella gracilis Wy02, L02a
    |         |--Radopholus similis Wy02
    |         `--Pratylenchus Wy02
    |              |--P. agilis MM02
    |              |--P. brachyurus SZA-T91
    |              |--P. coffere SZA-T91
    |              |--P. neglectus L02b
    |              |--P. penetrans Wy02
    |              |--P. scribneri J02
    |              |--P. thornei Wh02
    |              `--P. zeae KH02
    |--Meloidogyne [Meloidogynidae] LB02
    |    |  i. s.: M. acronea J02
    |    |         M. artiellia MG06
    |    |         M. carolinensis Gi02
    |    |         M. exigua Gi02
    |    |         M. graminicola J02
    |    |         M. megatyla Gi02
    |    |         M. naasi Wh02
    |    |         M. nataliei Gi02
    |    |         M. oryzae J02
    |    |         M. triticoryzae P02
    |    |--M. chitwoodi SB05
    |    `--+--M. hapla SB05
    |       `--+--M. arenaria SB05
    |          `--+--M. incognita SB05
    |             |    |--M. i. incognita J02
    |             |    `--M. i. wartellei J02
    |             `--M. javanica SB05
    `--Hoplolaimidae LB02
         |  i. s.: Tylenchorhynchus H02
         |           |--T. dubius Wy02
         |           |--T. latus SZA-T91
         |           |--T. martini SZA-T91
         |           `--T. nothus SZA-T91
         |--Heteroderinae LB02
         |--Rotylenchulus [Rotylenchulinae] Wy02
         |    |--R. macrodoratus Wy02
         |    |--R. parvus H02
         |    `--R. reniformis Wy02
         `--Hoplolaiminae Wy02
              |--Hoplolaimus galeatus Wy02
              |--Rotylenchus reniformis Wy02, L02b
              |--Helicotylenchus Wy02
              |    |--H. dihystera Wh02
              |    `--H. multicinctus J02
              `--Scutellonema Wy02
                   |--S. brachyurum Wy02
                   `--S. cavenessi Wh02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[Ge02] Gems, D. 2002. Ageing. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 413-455. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Gi02] Gibbons, L. M. 2002. General organisation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 31-59. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[H02] Hope, I. A. 2002. Embryology, developmental biology and the genome. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 121-145. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[J02] Justine, J.-L. 2002. Male and female gametes and fertilisation. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 73-119. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[KH02] Kerry, B. R., & W. M. Hominick. 2002. Biological control. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 483-509. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02a] Lee, D. L. 2002a. Cuticle, moulting and exsheathment. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 171-209. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[L02b] Lee, D. L. 2002b. Behaviour. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 369-387. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[LB02] Ley, P. de, & M. Blaxter. 2002. Systematic position and phylogeny. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 1-30. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

Maggenti, A. R., M. Luc, D. J. Raski, R. Fortuner & E. Geraert. 1987. A reappraisal of Tylenchina (Nemata). 2. Classification of the suborder Tylenchina (Nemata: Diplogasteria). Revue Nématol. 10 (2): 135-142.

[MG06] Mallatt, J., & G. Giribet. 2006. Further use of nearly complete 28S and 18S rRNA genes to classify Ecdysozoa: 37 more arthropods and a kinorhynch. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 772-794.

[MM02] Munn, E. A., & P. D. Munn. 2002. Feeding and digestion. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 211-232. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[SB05] Scholl, E. H., & D. M. Bird. 2005. Resolving tylenchid evolutionary relationships through multiple gene analysis derived from EST data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 536-545.

[SZA-T91] Sweelam, M. E., M. A. Zaki & S. M. Abo-Taka. 1991. Efficacy of some pesticides in field control of soil mites and nematodes infesting potato plants. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 713-717. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Wh02] Wharton, D. A. 2002. Nematode survival strategies. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 389-411. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

[Wy02] Wyss, U. 2002. Feeding behaviour of plant-parasitic nematodes. In The Biology of Nematodes (D. L. Lee, ed.) pp. 233-259. Taylor & Francis: Florence (Kentucky).

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