Macrochelidae

Venter of Macrocheles muscaedomesticae, from Qing Hai Fan.


Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.

The Macrochelidae is a group of mites that are often predatory on nematodes. Many species are found in restricted substrates such as animal dung or nests, and disperse between habitat sites by phoresis on flying insects. Species of Macrocheles and Neopodocinum have been shown to exhibit varying degrees of specificity to their preferred insect hosts (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Peritremes generally looped proximally, joining the stigmata posteriorly. Genu I usually with two ventral setae; tarsus I usually without claws; paired paradactyli of pretarsi II-IV usually broad and extending to apex of claws, divided or deeply serrated distally. Male chelicera with spermatodactyl. Female with pair of conspicuous accessory sclerites beneath lateral margins of epigynal shield.

Macrochelidae [Macrochelinae]
    |--Lordocheles rykei LKW09
    |--Aethosoma Krantz 1962 FH93
    |    `--A. burchellestes Krantz 1962 FH93
    |--Ancistrocheles Krantz 1962 FH93
    |    `--A. bregetovae Krantz 1962 FH93
    |--Dissoloncha Falconer 1923 FH93
    |    `--*D. superba (Hull 1918) FP60 [=Macrocheles superbus FH93]
    |--Gonatothrix Krantz 1988 FH93
    |    `--G. carinata Krantz 1988 FH93
    |--Neopodocinum LKW09
    |    |--N. coprophilum Vitzthum 1924 V25
    |    `--N. maius Berlese 1911 V25
    |--Glyptholaspis Filipponi & Pegazzano 1960 ET79
    |    |--*G. fimicola (Sellnick 1931) FP60 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--G. americana (Berlese 1888) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--G. asperrima (Berlese 1905) [=Holostaspis asperrimus, Macrocheles asperrimus] FP60
    |    |--G. confusa (Foà 1900) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    `--G. pontina Filipponi & Pegazzano 1960 FP60
    |--Geholaspis Berlese 1918 [incl. Cyrtocheles Valle 1953] ET79
    |    |--G. (Geholaspis) S61
    |    |    |--*G. (G.) longispinus (Kramer 1876) ET79 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    `--G. (G.) longulus [=Macrocheles (G.) longulus] S22
    |    `--G. (Longicheles Valle 1953) LKW09, ET79
    |         `--G. (L.) mandibularis (Berlese 1904) LKW09, Koe91 [=Macrocheles (Geholaspis) mandibularis S22]
    |--Holostaspella Berlese 1903 (see below for synonymy) FH93
    |    |--*H. sculpta (Berlese 1903) [=Holostaspis (*Holostaspella) sculpta] ET79
    |    |--H. ainscoughi Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. ancylothrix Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. aplodontiae Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. ateucha Halliday 1988 H98
    |    |--H. bifoliata (Trägårdh 1952) [=Areolaspis bifoliatus] FH93
    |    |--H. bisignata Berlese 1918 [=H. (Prholaspina) bisignata] V25
    |    |--H. caelata Berlese 1910 V25
    |    |--H. crenulata Krantz 1967 H98
    |    |--H. exornata Filipponi & Pegazzano 1967 H98
    |    |--H. foai Berlese 1910 V25
    |    |--H. micrarrhena Berlese 1916 [=H. (Prholaspina) micrarrhena] V25
    |    |--H. moderata Berlese 1920 [incl. H. egregia Vitzthum 1925] H98
    |    |--H. ornata ET79
    |    |--H. polytrema Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. punctata LKW09
    |    `--H. spinosissima Berlese 1916 V25
    |--Holocelaeno Berlese 1910 (see below for synonymy) FH93
    |    |--H. amygdaligera Berlese 1918 [=Holocaelano amygdaligera] FH93
    |    |--H. axtelli Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. berlesei Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. brachychaeta Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. bursiformis Berlese 1910 FH93
    |    |--H. condyla Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. coprophila (Turk 1948) FH93 [=*Neoholaspis coprophilus FP60]
    |    |--H. cosmothorax Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. floridana (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles floridanus] FH93
    |    |--H. fuscata Berlese 1916 [=Holocaeleno mitis var. fuscata] FH93
    |    |--H. grandis (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles grandis] FH93
    |    |--H. longicoma (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles longicoma] FH93
    |    |--H. melisi LKW09
    |    |--H. mitis (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles mitis] FH93
    |    |--H. ritcheri Krantz 1967 FH93
    |    |--H. rotunda (Berlese 1910) [=Macrocheles rotunda] FH93
    |    |--H. scapularis (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles scapularis] FH93
    |    `--H. turki (Evans & Hyatt 1963) [=Macrocheles turki] FH93
    `--Macrocheles Latreille 1829 (see below for synonymy) ET79
         |  i. s.: M. muscaedomesticae (Scopoli 1772) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |         M. aciculatus [=M. (Nothrholaspis) aciculatus] S22
         |         M. adenosticta Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. aestivus Halliday 1986 H98
         |         M. alata Fox 1946 FH93
         |         M. alecto Berlese 1918 [=M. (Coprholaspis) alecto] V25
         |         M. alpinus S61 [=M. (Geholaspis) alpinus S22]
         |         M. analis Hyatt & Emberson 1988 FH93
         |         M. arctica (Kramer & Neuman 1883) [=Gamasus arcticus] FH93
         |         ‘Coprholaspis’ arcuatus Trägårdh 1931 T31
         |         M. areolata Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. austroamericana Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. boneti Mendez-Olivo 1968 FH93
         |         M. boudreauxi Krantz 1965 FH93
         |         M. bregetovae Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. bruneti (Turk 1948) [=Coprholaspis bruneti] FH93
         |         M. buruensis Oudemans 1927 [=M. (Coprholaspis) buruensis] O28
         |         M. canadensis Banks 1912 FH93
         |         M. cardiata Fox 1947 FH93
         |         M. carinatus (Koch 1839) [=M. (Nothrholaspis) carinatus] V25
         |         M. clavisetosa Ewing 1909 [incl. M. rodriguezi Oliver & Krantz 1963] FH93
         |         M. cubanica Iavorschi 1980 FH93
         |         ‘Macrholaspis’ dentatus S61
         |         M. dibomos Krantz 1962 FH93
         |         M. dimidiata Berlese 1918 [=M. (Coprholaspis) dimidiatus] FH93
         |         M. disjuncta Delfinado & Baker 1975 FH93
         |         M. dispar (Berlese 1910) [=Holostaspis dispar, M. (Coprholaspis) dispar] V25
         |         M. dolichosterna Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. faveolus Halliday 1993 H98
         |         M. feehani Halliday 1990 H98
         |         M. filipponii Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. fonsecai Fox 1956 FH93
         |         M. halffteri Machado-Allison 1964 FH93
         |         M. hechti Machado-Allison 1964 FH93
         |         M. helvina Banks 1910 FH93
         |         M. hirsutissima (Berlese 1910) [=Holostaspella hirsutissima] FH93
         |         M. hoffmannae Mendez=Olivo 1968 FH93
         |         M. hyatti Krantz & Filipponi 1964 H98
         |         M. insignita Berlese 1918 [incl. M. whartoni Delfinado & Baker 1975] FH93
         |         M. jalisciensis Mendez-Olivo 1968 FH93
         |         M. kappa Halliday 1990 H98
         |         M. krantzi Evans & Hyatt 1963 H98
         |         M. laciniata Krantz 1988 FH93
         |         M. lukoschusi LKW09
         |         M. lyrata Fox 1947 FH93
         |         M. mammifer Berlese 1918 FH93 (see below for synonymy)
         |         M. maseri Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. matrius (Hull 1925) FH93
         |         M. merdarius (Berlese 1889) H98 [=Holostaspis merdarius H98; incl. H. adulescens Berlese 1910 FH93]
         |         M. mesochthonia Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. mexicana Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. minervae Cicolani 1983 CS91
         |         M. moesta (Banks 1898) [=Holostaspis moestus] FH93
         |         M. montanus Koh91
         |         M. mycotrupetes Krantz & Mellott 1968 FH93
         |         M. mykytowyczi Womersley 1956 H98
         |         M. nemerdaria Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. novaezelandiae Emberson 1973 H98
         |         M. ontariensis Norton 1973 FH93
         |         ‘Gamasus’ opacus [=*Macrholaspis opacus] S61
         |         M. oudemansii Hull 1925 [=M. (*Monoplites) oudemansii] FP60
         |         M. paralius Halliday 1990 H98
         |         M. pelaezi Mendez-Olivo 1968 FH93
         |         M. peltotrupetes Krantz & Mellott 1968 FH93
         |         M. penicilliger (Berlese 1904) [=Holostaspis penicilliger] FH93
         |         M. peniculatus Berlese 1918 H98 [incl. M. (Coprholaspis) vicarius Berlese 1918 FH93]
         |         M. peregrinus Krantz 1981 H01
         |         M. pisentii KR91 [=M. (Coprholaspis) pisentii S22]
         |         M. polypunctata Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. polysticha Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. praedafimetorum Richards & Richards 1977 FH93
         |         M. recki Bregetova & Koroleva 1960 D91
         |         M. rettenmeyeri Krantz 1962 FH93
         |         M. robustulus (Berlese 1904) H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |         M. robustus Koh91
         |         M. rotundiscutis Bregetova & Koroleva 1960 [incl. M. bombophilus Götz in Kraus 1970] FH93
         |         M. saceri KR91
         |         M. schaeferi Walter 1988 FH93
         |         M. scutatus (Berlese 1904) [=Holostaspis subbadius var. scutatus] H98
         |         M. similis Krantz & Filipponi 1964 FH93
         |         M. spickai Krantz & Whitaker 1988 FH93
         |         M. spinata Banks 1904 FH93
         |         M. spinipes (Say 1821) [=Gamasus spinipes] FH93
         |         M. stygia (Packard 1888) [=Gamasus stygius] FH93
         |         M. subbadius (Berlese 1904) H98 (see below for synonymy)
         |         M. sublaevis Banks 1914 FH93
         |         M. tardus S61
         |         M. telamoni Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. tenuirostris Krantz & Filipponi 1964 H98
         |         M. terreus [=M. (Nothrholaspis) terreus] S22
         |         M. tridentata (Pearse & Wharton in Pearse, Patterson et al. 1936) [=Cosmolaelaps tridentatus] FH93
         |         M. tridentinus (Canestrini & Canestrini 1918) (see below for synonymy) FP60
         |         M. trinitatis (Turk 1948) FH93 [=&Andrholaspis trinitatis FP60]
         |         M. troglodytes (Packard 1888) [=Gamasus troglodytes, Hypoaspis troglodytes] FH93
         |         M. veracrucensis Mendez-Olivo 1968 FH93
         |         M. vernalis RK91
         |         M. verticalis Evans & Hyatt 1963 FH93
         |         M. vespillo Berlese 1918 FH93
         |         M. virgo Halliday 1993 H98
         `--M. glaber group WK86
              |--+--M. glaber (Müller 1860) WK86, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
              |  `--M. perglaber Filipponi & Pegazzano 1962 WK86, FH93
              `--M. kraepelini complex WK86
                   |--M. hallidayi Walter & Krantz 1986 WK86
                   |--M. kraepelini (Berlese 1905) WK86, H98 (see below for synonymy)
                   `--M. tantalus Walter & Krantz 1986 WK86

*Geholaspis (Geholaspis) longispinus (Kramer 1876) ET79 [=Gamasus longispinus ET79, Holostaspis longispinosus S22, Macrocheles (*Geholaspis) longispinosus FP60]

Glyptholaspis americana (Berlese 1888) FH93 [=Holostaspis marginatus var. americanus FH93, Macrocheles americanus FP60; incl. H. vagabundus var. insulanus Trägardh 1931 FP60, Nothrholaspis montivagus Womersley 1942 FH93, M. montivagus S22, M. vagabundus var. neotropicus Berlese 1918 FH93, M. plumipes Hull 1918 FP60, Holostaspella spectabilis Berlese 1916 FH93, M. tardior Hull 1925 FH93, Holostaspis vagabundus Berlese 1889 FH93, M. vagabundus FP60]

Glyptholaspis confusa (Foà 1900) FH93 [=Holostaspis confusus FP60, Macrocheles americanus var. confusus FP60; incl. M. vagabundus var. australis Berlese 1918 FP60, M. plumiventris Hull 1925 FH93]

*Glyptholaspis fimicola (Sellnick 1931) FP60 [=Nothrholaspis fimicola FH93; incl. Gamasus carinatus CF77, Macrocheles gladiator Hull 1918 FP60, Ga. tardus Berlese 1882 non Koch 1841 FP60, Glyptholaspis tardus ET70]

Holocelaeno Berlese 1910 [incl. Euholocelaeno Berlese 1918, Neoholaspis Turk 1948, Trichocelaeno Berlese 1918] FH93

Holostaspella Berlese 1903 [incl. Aethiolaspis Van Driel & Loots 1975, Areolaspis Trägårdh 1952, Prholaspina Berlese 1918] FH93

Macrocheles Latreille 1829 [incl. Andrholaspis Turk 1948, Coprholaspis Berlese 1918, Macrholaspis Oudemans 1931, Monoplites Hull 1925, Nothrholaspis Berlese 1918] ET79

Macrocheles glaber (Müller 1860) WK86, FH93 [=Holostaspis glabra H98, M. (*Coprholaspis) glaber V25; incl. Coprholaspis anglicus Turk 1946 FH93, H. marginatus var. littoralis Halbert 1915 FH93, Macrocheles subglaber Filipponi 1959 H98, M. veterrimus Sellnick 1940 FH93]

Macrocheles kraepelini (Berlese 1905) WK86, H98 [=Holostaspis kraepelini H98, M. (Coprholaspis) kraepelini WK86; incl. M. multihamatus Vitzthum 1926 H98, Coprholaspis multihamatus T31]

Macrocheles mammifer Berlese 1918 FH93 [=M. (Nothrholaspis) mammifer V25; incl. Glyptholaspis orientalis Iavorschi 1980 FH93, M. pavlovskii Bregetova & Koroleva 1960 FH93, Holostaspella polyornata Turk 1948 FH93, M. postneri Krauss 1970 FH93]

Macrocheles muscaedomesticae (Scopoli 1772) FH93 [=Acarus muscaedomesticae FH93; incl. A. marginatus Hermann 1804 non A. aquaticus marginatus De Geer 1778 FH93, Holostaspis marginatus FP60, *Macrocheles marginatus S61, M. muscae Ewing 1913 FH93, Holostaspis posteroarmatus Berlese 1904 FH93, M. (Coprholaspis) posteroarmatus FP60, H. sita Trojan 1908 FH93, H. submarginatus Foà 1900 FH93]

Macrocheles robustulus (Berlese 1904) H98 [=Holostaspis subbadius var. robustulus H98, H. subbadius var. rubustulus H98; incl. M. coprophila Womersley 1942 H98, M. rothamstedensis Evans & Browning 1956 FH93]

Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese 1904) H98 [=Holostaspis subbadius H98; incl. M. situs Karg 1978 non H. sita Trojan 1908 FH93]

Macrocheles tridentinus (Canestrini & Canestrini 1918) [=Holostaspis tridentinus, M. (*Nothrholaspis) tridentinus] FP60

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CF77] Canestrini, G., & F. Fanzago. 1877. Intorno agli Acari Italiani. Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, Serie 5, 4: 69–208, pls 2–7.

[CS91] Cicolani, B., & A. Di Sabatino. 1991. Genetic differentiation between Macrocheles penicilliger and Macrocheles minervae (Acarina: Mesostigmata). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 437–442. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[D91] Dielmann, M. 1991. Computer in acarine taxonomy: a method for systematical analysis of the genus Pergamasus (Acari: Mesostigmata). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 239–248. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[FP60] Filipponi, A., & F. Pegazzano. 1960. Acari del genere Glyptholaspis nom. nov. pro Macrocheles (Macrocheles) Berl., 1918 (Mesostigmata, Macrochelidae). Redia 45: 133–171.

[H98] Halliday, R. B. 1998. Mites of Australia: A checklist and bibliography. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood.

[H01] Halliday, R. B. 2001. 250 years of Australian acarology. In: Halliday, R. B., D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff (eds) Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress pp. 3–16. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[Koe91] Koehler, H. H. 1991. The impact of aldicarb on the succession of Gamasina; a one year study. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 749–758. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[Koh91] Kohn, M. 1991. Influence of the refuse dump biotopes on ecology of some gamasoid mites and ticks. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 199–204. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KR91] Krantz, G. W., L. A. Royce, R. R. Lowry & R. Kelsey. 1991. Mechanisms of phoretic specificity in Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 561–569. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

[O28] Oudemans, A. C. 1928. Fauna Buruana. Acari. Treubia 7 (Suppl. 2): 37–100.

[RK91] Royce, L. A., & G. W. Krantz. 1991. A new rearing method for nematophagous mites. In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 619–622. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[S22] Schweizer, J. 1922. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der terrestrischen Milbenfauna der Schweiz. Verhandl. Naturf. Ges. Basel 33: 23–112, 4 pls.

[S61] Schweizer, J. 1961. Die Landmilben der Schweiz (Mittelland, Jura und Alpen): Parasitiformes Reuter, mit 246 Arten und Varietäten und 268 meist kombinierten Originalzeichnungen. Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft [Mémoires de la Société Helvétique des Sciences Naturelles] 84: i–vii, 1–207.

[T31] Trägårdh, I. 1931. Acarina from the Juan Fernandez Islands. Natural History of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands 3 (4): 553–628.

[V25] Vitzthum, H. 1925. Fauna sumatrensis. (Beitrag no. 5). Acarinae. Supplementa Entomologica 11: 1–79.

[WK86] Walter, D. E., & G. W. Krantz. 1986. Description of the Macrocheles kraepelini species complex (Acari: Macrochelidae) with two new species. Canadian Journal of Zoology 64: 212–217.

Last updated: 25 April 2018.

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