Antedonacea

Florometra serratissima, from Ocean Spaces.


Belongs within: Comatulida.
Contains: Antedoninae, Zenometrinae, Bathymetrinae.

The Antedonacea are a group of feather stars with a relatively large internal cavity to the calyx.

Characters (from Wienberg Rasmussen 1978): Centrodorsal variable, discoidal or hemispherical to rounded subconical, conical or columnar. Cirrus sockets generally small and numerous, closely placed, often closely alternating in several circles, may tend to form several indistinct columns, in Zenometrinae forming 10 to 20 distinct columns. Sockets without distinct ornament. Basals often transformed to rosette. Rod-shaped basals usually reduced or absent, sometimes present and commonly exposed. Centrodorsal cavity moderate, about 0.3 of centrodorsal diameter in most Antedoninae, Thysanometrinae, Heliometrinae and Isometrinae, and rather large to very large in Perometrinae, Bathymetrinae, Zenometrinae and Pentametrocrinidae. Radials 10 (5 radials and 5 pararadials) in Promachocrinus and Thaumatocrinus, but five in all other Antedonacea. Ventral muscular fossae high and almost vertical on thin, muscular flange of radial, and meeting in midradial line at angle of about 90 degrees. Radial cavity narrow or funnel shaped, without calcareous filling (no central plug). Arms undivided in Pentametrocrinidae, divided at primibrachs 2 in Antedonidae. Synarthry at brachials 2–2 often embayed. Syzygy at brachials 3–4 and generally at brachials 9–10, and distal with short intervals. Distal brachials strongly wedge shaped. Pinnules cylindrical to flattened, not carinate. Mouth central.

<==Antedonacea [Antedonida]
    |--Pentametrocrinidae [Decametrocrinidae, Thaumatocrinida, Thaumatocrinidae, Thaumatocrininae] WR78
    |    |--Thaumatocrinus Carpenter 1884 [incl. Decametrocrinus Minckert 1905] WR78
    |    |    |--*T. renovatus Carpenter 1884 (see below for synonymy) WR78
    |    |    `--T. naresi WR78
    |    `--Pentametrocrinus Clark 1908 WR78
    |         |--*P. japonicus (Carpenter 1882) [=Eudiocrinus japonicus] WR78
    |         |--P. semperi (Carpenter 1882) MG-H11
    |         `--P. varians (Carpenter 1882) MG-H11
    `--Antedonidae WR78
         |--Antedoninae WR78
         |--Zenometrinae WR78
         |--Bathymetrinae WR78
         |--Isometra Clark 1908 [Isometrinae] WR78
         |    |--*I. challengeri (Clark 1907) (see below for synonymy) WR78
         |    `--I. vivipara WR78
         |--Thysanometrinae WR78
         |    |--Thysanometra Clark 1907 WR78
         |    |    `--*T. tenelloides (Clark 1907) [=Antedon tenelloides] WR78
         |    `--Coccometra Clark 1908 WR78
         |         `--*C. hagenii (Pourtalès 1868) [=Comatula hagenii] WR78
         |--Perometrinae WR78
         |    |--Nanometra Clark 1907 WR78
         |    |    `--N. bowersi (Clark 1907) (see below for synonymy) WR78
         |    |--Perometra Clark 1907 WR78
         |    |    `--*P. diomedeae (Clark 1907) [=Antedon diomedeae] WR78
         |    |--Erythrometra Clark 1908 WR78
         |    |    `--*E. rubra (Clark 1907) [=Antedon ruber] WR78
         |    `--Hypalometra Clark 1908 WR78
         |         `--*H. defecta (Carpenter 1888) [=Antedon defecta] WR78
         `--Heliometrinae [Promachocrininae] WR78
              |--Promachocrinus Carpenter 1879 WR78
              |    `--*P. kerguelensis Carpenter 1881 (see below for synonymy) WR78
              |--Solanometra Clark 1911 WR78
              |    `--*S. antarctica (Carpenter 1881) (see below for synonymy) WR78
              |--Hertha von Hagenow 1840 WR78
              |    `--*H. mystica von Hagenow 1840 WR78
              |--Allionia Michelotti 1861 WR78
              |    `--*A. oblita Michelotti 1861 WR78
              |--Roiometra Clark 1944 WR78
              |    `--*R. columbiana Clark 1944 WR78
              |--Anthometra Clark 1913 WR78
              |    `--*A. adriani (Bell 1908) [=Antedon adriani] WR78
              |--Heliometra Clark 1907 WR78
              |    `--H. glacialis (Leach ex Owen 1833) WR78 (see below for synonymy)
              |         |--H. g. glacialis BK77
              |         `--H. g. maxima BK77
              `--Florometra Clark 1913 WR78
                   |--*F. magellanica (Bell 1882) [=Antedon eschrichti var. magellanica] WR78
                   |--F. asperrima WR78
                   `--F. serratissima HF04

Heliometra glacialis (Leach ex Owen 1833) WR78 [=Alecto glacialis WR78; incl. Antedon arctica Clark 1907 WR78, An. bartensi Carpenter 1886 WR78, Alecto eschrichtii Müller 1841 WR78, An. eschrichtii BK77, *Heliometra eschrichtii WR78, H. juvenalis Clark 1908 WR78, Antedon quadrata Carpenter 1884 WR78]

*Isometra challengeri (Clark 1907) [=Antedon challengeri Clark 1907, A. lineata Carpenter 1888 non Pomel 1887] WR78

Nanometra bowersi (Clark 1907) [=Antedon bowersi; incl. A. minor Clark 1907 non A. avenionensis var. minor Nicolas 1898, *Nanometra minor, N. minckerti Clark 1907, Antedon orientalis Clark 1907] WR78

*Promachocrinus kerguelensis Carpenter 1881 [incl. P. joubini Vaney 1910, P. vanhoeffenianus Minckert 1905] WR78

*Solanometra antarctica (Carpenter 1881) [=Antedon antarctica; incl. A. australis Carpenter 1888 non Carpenter 1882, Heliometra glabra Clark 1907] WR78

*Thaumatocrinus renovatus Carpenter 1884 [incl. Promachocrinus abyssorum Carpenter 1888, *Decametrocrinus abyssorum] WR78

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1-159.

[HF04] Helfenbein, K. G., H. M. Fourcade, R. G. Vanjani & J. L. Boore. 2004. The mitochondrial genome of Paraspadella gotoi is highly reduced and reveals that chaetognaths are a sister group to protostomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (29): 10639-10643.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1-191.

[WR78] Wienberg Rasmussen, H. 1978. Articulata. In Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. T. Echinodermata 2. Crinoidea (R. C. Moore & C. Teichert, eds) vol. 3 pp. T813-T927. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

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