Holaspina sp., copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.

Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.

The Parholaspididae are a group of moderately to heavily sclerotised mites often found in litter and soil habitats or in tree holes in the Northern Hemisphere, often at higher altitudes. In some habitats they may be among the most abundant mites found; in a study of alpine sites in Japan, for instance, parholaspidids accounted for over a quarter of the Mesostigmata collected (Lindquist et al. 2009). Females have the peritrematal shields fused to the ventri-anal shield in Holaspulus and Neparholaspis but free in other genera (Krantz 1960).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Posterior end of peritreme straight, joining stigmata anteriorly; genu I usually with three ventral setae; tarsus I with or without claws; paired paradactyli of pretarsi II–IV usually setiform, undivided distally; female with lateral accessory sclerites faint or absent beneath lateral margins of epigynal shield.

<==Parholaspididae [Parholaspidae, Parholaspinae] I91
    |  i. s.: Krantzholaspis Petrova 1967 FH93
    |           `--K. zwartae (Marshall 1964) [=Neparholaspis zwartae] FH93
    |         Snaveolaspis Johnston 1969 FH93
    |           |--‘Parholaspulus’ hiasmaticus Petrova 1967 H95
    |           |--S. lobata (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus lobatus] FH93
    |           |--S. parvilobata (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus parvilobatus] FH93
    |           `--S. tragardhi (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus tragardhi] FH93
    |         Proparholaspulus H95
    |--Calholaspis Berlese 1918 K60, FH93
    |    |--*C. superba Berlese 1918 K60, FH93
    |    |--C. appalachica (Jacot 1939) [=Macrocheles appalachicus] FH93
    |    |--C. berlesei Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    |--C. bihastata (Ewing 1920) [=Macrocheles bihastatus] FH93
    |    |--C. carolinensis (Banks 1904) [=Macrocheles carolinensis] FH93
    |    `--C. trianothrix Krantz 1963 FH93
    `--+--Holaspina Berlese 1916 H95 [incl. Neoparholaspulus Krantz 1960 K60, H95, Parholaspulus Evans 1956 H95]
       |    |--H. muscorum (Ewing 1909) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
       |    |--H. alstoni (Evans 1956) FH93, ET79 [=*Parholaspulus alstoni ET79, FH93]
       |    |--H. bakeri (Krantz 1960) [=Neoparholaspulus bakeri] FH93
       |    |--H. coalescens (Krantz 1960) FH93 [=*Neoparholaspulus coalescens K60]
       |    |--H. cuspidata (Krantz 1960) [=Neoparholaspulus cuspidatus] FH93
       |    |--H. maunaloaensis (Tenorio & Marshall 1977) [=Parholaspulus (Parholaspidellus) maunaloaensis] FH93
       |    |--‘Parholaspulus’ ochraeus LKW09
       |    |--H. schusteri (Hirschmann 1966) [=Parholaspulus schusteri] FH93
       |    `--H. solimani E-KO07
       `--+--+--Lattinella Krantz 1960 K60, FH93
          |  |    `--*L. capizzii Krantz 1960 K60
          |  |--Parholaspella Krantz 1960 K60, FH93
          |  |    |--*P. spatulata Krantz 1960 K60
          |  |    |--P. peltata Krantz 1960 FH93
          |  |    `--P. womersleyi Krantz 1960 FH93
          |  `--Parholaspis Berlese 1918 K60, ET79
          |       |--*P. desertus Berlese 1918 ET79
          |       |--P. caelebs Vitzthum 1926 K60
          |       `--P. kewensis Evans 1956 K60
          `--+--Holaspulus Berlese 1904 K60, I91
             |    |  i. s.: H. confusus Halliday 1995 H95
             |    |         H. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H95
             |    |         H. viduus Berlese 1905 K60
             |    |--H. tweedei Evans 1956 I91, H95
             |    `--+--*H. tenuipes (Berlese 1904) I91, FH93 (see below for synonymy)
             |       `--H. serratus I91
             `--+--Gamasholaspis Berlese 1904 K60, FH93 [incl. Evansolaspis Bregetova & Koroleva 1960 FH93]
                |    |--*G. gamasoides (Berlese 1904) [=Holostaspis (*Gamasholaspis) gamasoides] K60
                |    `--G. intermedius Evans 1956 K60
                `--Neparholaspis Evans 1956 K60, FH93 [incl. Tricholaspis Evans 1956 FH93]
                     |--*N. spathulatus Evans 1956 K60 [incl. Parholaspis crispus Willmann 1940 K60, N. crispus LKW09]
                     |--N. evansi Krantz 1960 FH93
                     |--N. marginipilis (Krantz 1960) [=Tricholaspis marginipilis] K60
                     `--N. simplex Evans 1956 K60

Holaspina muscorum (Ewing 1909) FH93 [=Macrocheles muscorum FH93, H. muscarum H95; incl. Neoparholaspulus hurlbutti Krantz 1960 FH93, H. hurlbutti KA90, *H. pulchella Berlese 1916 H95]

*Holaspulus tenuipes (Berlese 1904) I91, FH93 [=Holostaspis (Holaspulus) tenuipes I91; incl. Parholaspis pachylaelapsoides Schweizer 1932 H95, Macrocheles tridentifer Ewing 1913 FH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H95] Halliday, R. B. 1995. A new genus and two new species of Parholaspididae from Australia and Papua New Guinea (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 209–217.

[I91] Ishikawa, K. 1991. Phylogenetic systematics and zoogeography of the genus Holaspulus Berlese (Acarina, Gamasida, Parholaspididae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 129–134. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[K60] Krantz, G. W. 1960. A re-evaluation of the Parholaspinae Evans 1956 (Acarina: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae). Acarologia 2 (4): 393–433.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.

Last updated: 18 April 2021.

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