Holaspina sp., copyright Centre for Biodiversity Genomics.

Belongs within: Eviphidoidea.

The Parholaspididae are a group of moderately to heavily sclerotised mites often found in litter and soil habitats or in tree holes in the Northern Hemisphere, often at higher altitudes. In some habitats they may be among the most abundant mites found; in a study of alpine sites in Japan, for instance, parholaspidids accounted for over a quarter of the Mesostigmata collected (Lindquist et al. 2009).

Characters (from Lindquist et al. 2009): Posterior end of peritreme straight, joining stigmata anteriorly; genu I usually with three ventral setae; tarsus I with or without claws; paired paradactyli of pretarsi II–IV usually setiform, undivided distally; female with lateral accessory sclerites faint or absent beneath lateral margins of epigynal shield.

<==Parholaspididae [Parholaspidae, Parholaspinae] I91
    |--Lattinella Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    `--L. capizzii Krantz 1960 FH93
    |--Gamasholaspis Berlese 1904 [incl. Evansolaspis Bregetova & Koroleva 1960] FH93
    |    `--G. gamasoides Berlese 1904 FH93
    |--Krantzholaspis Petrova 1967 FH93
    |    `--K. zwartae (Marshall 1964) [=Neparholaspis zwartae] FH93
    |--Parholaspis Berlese 1918 ET79
    |    |--*P. desertus Berlese 1918 ET79
    |    `--P. kewensis LKW09
    |--Neparholaspis Evans 1956 [incl. Tricholaspis Evans 1956] FH93
    |    |--N. evansi Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    `--N. spathulatus [incl. N. crispus] LKW09
    |--Parholaspella Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    |--P. peltata Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    |--P. spatulata Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    `--P. womersleyi Krantz 1960 FH93
    |--Snaveolaspis Johnston 1969 FH93
    |    |--‘Parholaspulus’ hiasmaticus Petrova 1967 H95
    |    |--S. lobata (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus lobatus] FH93
    |    |--S. parvilobata (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus parvilobatus] FH93
    |    `--S. tragardhi (Krantz 1960) [=Parholaspulus tragardhi] FH93
    |--Holaspulus Berlese 1904 I91
    |    |  i. s.: H. confusus Halliday 1995 H95
    |    |         H. schusteri Hirschmann 1966 H95
    |    |--H. tweedei Evans 1956 I91, H95
    |    `--+--*H. tenuipes (Berlese 1904) I91, ET79 (see below for synonymy)
    |       `--H. serratus I91
    |--Calholaspis Berlese 1918 FH93
    |    |--C. appalachica (Jacot 1939) [=Macrocheles appalachicus] FH93
    |    |--C. berlesei Krantz 1960 FH93
    |    |--C. bihastata (Ewing 1920) [=Macrocheles bihastatus] FH93
    |    |--C. carolinensis (Banks 1904) [=Macrocheles carolinensis] FH93
    |    |--C. superba Berlese 1918 FH93
    |    `--C. trianothrix Krantz 1963 FH93
    |--Holaspina Berlese 1916 [incl. Neoparholaspulus Krantz 1960, Parholaspulus Evans 1956] H95
    |    |--H. muscorum (Ewing 1909) FH93 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |--H. alstoni (Evans 1956) FH93, ET79 [=*Parholaspulus alstoni ET79, FH93]
    |    |--H. bakeri (Krantz 1960) [=Neoparholaspulus bakeri] FH93
    |    |--H. coalescens (Krantz 1960) [=Neoparholaspulus coalescens] FH93
    |    |--H. cuspidata (Krantz 1960) [=Neoparholaspulus cuspidatus] FH93
    |    |--H. maunaloaensis (Tenorio & Marshall 1977) [=Parholaspulus (Parholaspidellus) maunaloaensis] FH93
    |    |--‘Parholaspulus’ ochraeus LKW09
    |    |--H. schusteri (Hirschmann 1966) [=Parholaspulus schusteri] FH93
    |    `--H. solimani E-KO07
    `--Proparholaspulus H95

Holaspina muscorum (Ewing 1909) FH93 [=Macrocheles muscorum FH93, H. muscarum H95; incl. Neoparholaspulus hurlbutti Krantz 1960 FH93, H. hurlbutti KA90, *H. pulchella Berlese 1916 H95]

*Holaspulus tenuipes (Berlese 1904) I91, ET79 [=Holostaspis (Holaspulus) tenuipes I91; incl. Parholaspis pachylaelapsoides Schweizer 1932 H95, Macrocheles tridentifer Ewing 1913 FH93]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[E-KO07] El-Kammah, K. M., & L. M. I. Oyoun. 2007. Taxonomic records of mite species associated with animal and poultry farms in the Nile delta, vally and N. Sinai Egypt. In: Morales-Malacara, J. B., V. M. Behan-Pelletier, E. Ueckermann, T. M. Pérez, E. G. Estrada-Venegas & M. Badii (eds) Acarology XI: Proceedings of the International Congress pp. 223–232. Instituto de Biología and Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sociedad Latinoamericana de Acarología: México.

[ET79] Evans, G. O., & W. M. Till. 1979. Mesostigmatic mites of Britain and Ireland (Chelicerata: Acari-Parasitiformes). An introduction to their external morphology and classification. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 35: 139–270.

[FH93] Farrier, M. H., & M. K. Hennessey. 1993. Soil-inhabiting and free-living Mesostigmata (Acari-Parasitiformes) from North America: an annotated checklist with bibliography and index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, North Carolina State University, Technical Bulletin 302: i–xvi, 1–408.

[H95] Halliday, R. B. 1995. A new genus and two new species of Parholaspididae from Australia and Papua New Guinea (Acarina: Mesostigmata). Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 209–217.

[I91] Ishikawa, K. 1991. Phylogenetic systematics and zoogeography of the genus Holaspulus Berlese (Acarina, Gamasida, Parholaspididae). In: Dusbábek, F., & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 2 pp. 129–134. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[KA90] Krantz, G. W., & B. D. Ainscough. 1990. Acarina: Mesostigmata (Gamasida). In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 583–665. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[LKW09] Lindquist, E. E., G. W. Krantz & D. E. Walter. 2009. Order Mesostigmata. In: Krantz, G. W., & D. E. Walter (eds) A Manual of Acarology 3rd ed. pp. 124–232. Texas Tech University Press.
Last updated: 9 March 2020.

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