Rhizophysa, copyright L. Madin.

Belongs within: Medusozoa.
Contains: Halammohydra, Limnomedusae, Narcomedusae, Trachymedusae, Capitata, Filifera, Thecata, Codonophora.

The Hydrozoa is a group of cnidarians ancestrally exhibiting a life-cycle alternating between a medusoid and a polypoid phase, though one or the other of these phases has been lost in a number of derived subgroups.

Characters (from Daly et al. 2007): Gametogenic tissue usually of ectodermal origin and location. Medusae, if present, possessing velum and two nerve rings; budded laterally from polyps. Polyps, if present, lacking septae.

Hydrozoa [Craspedotae, Hydroida, Hydroidomedusae, Hydromedusae]
    |--Trachylina DB07
    |    |--Actinulida [Halammohydrida, Halammohydrina] DB07
    |    |    |--Halammohydra DB07
    |    |    `--Otohydra Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86 [Otohydridae DB07]
    |    |         |--O. tremulans Lacassagne 1973 CS-P86
    |    |         `--O. vagans Swedmark & Teissier 1958 CS-P86
    |    |--Limnomedusae DB07
    |    |--Narcomedusae DB07
    |    `--Trachymedusae DB07
    `--Hydroidolina DB07
         |--Anthoathecata [Anthomedusae, Athecata] DB07
         |    |  i. s.: Gemmaria McCrady 1857 H04, RL03
         |    |           `--G. sagittaria H04
         |    |         Tiara pileata H04
         |    |         Stomotoca pterophylla H04
         |    |         Thamnostylus dinema H04
         |    |--Capitata P79
         |    `--Filifera P79
         |--Thecata DB07
         `--Siphonophorae [Physophorae, Physophorina, Siphonantha, Siphonophora] DB07
              |  i. s.: Diphyopsis B26
              |           |--D. dispar B26
              |           `--D. major B26
              |         Anthophysa formosa B26
              |--Codonophora DPH05
              `--Cystonectae DPH05
                   |--Epibulia ritteriana H04
                   |--Cystalia monogastrica H04
                   |--Salacia polygastrica H04
                   |--Physalia [Physaliidae] DPH05
                   |    |--P. pelagica C45
                   |    `--P. physalis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Holothuria physalis] DB07
                   `--Rhizophysa [Rhizophysidae] DPH05
                        |--R. eysenhardti DPH05
                        `--R. filiformis DPH05

Hydrozoa incertae sedis:
  Rhabdohydra tridens BU02
  Chaunograptus Hall 1883 BU02, B70 [Chaunograptidae]
    `--*C. novellus (Hall 1883) [=Dendrograptus (Chaunograptus) novellus] B70
  Conchopeltidae [Tetradialomorpha] IF02
    |--Conchopeltis Walcott 1879 KC60
    `--Conomedusites Glaessner & Wade 1966 IF02, G79
         `--*C. lobatus Glaessner & Wade 1966 G79
  Heterastridium Reuss 1865 [Heterastridiidae] SG-M98
    `--*H. conglobatum Reuss 1865 SG-M98
         |--H. c. conglobatum SG-M98
         `--H. c. disciforme SG-M98
  Plumaria undulata B79
  Stephanidium H15
  Perigonimus cidaridis BK77
  Cuspidella BK77
  Distichopora violacea VV77
  Radiotrabeculopora Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 (see below for synonymy) RLS04
    |--*R. xiangboensis Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 RLS04
    `--R. reticulata Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 RLS04
  Cassiniastraea Volz 1896 RS01
  Parkeria sphaerica S02
  ‘Turris’ neglectus Lesson 1837 F27
  Phialidium B26
    |--P. hemisphericum D56
    `--P. languidum B26
  Staurophora mertensii [incl. S. falklandica Browne 1902] B26
  Ptychogena lactea B26
  Cambrohydra EL11
  Keramosphaerina Stache 1913 [=Bradya Stache 1889 nec Boeck 1872 nec Carter 1877] LT64
    `--*K. tergestina (Stache 1889) [=*Bradya tergestina] LT64
  Rhaptapagis cantacuzenei CS-P86
  Ceratella Gray 1868 B86
    `--C. fusca Gray 1868 B86
  Dehitella atrorubens B86

Radiotrabeculopora Fan, Rigby & Zhang 1991 [incl. Flabellisclera Wu 1991, Fungispongia Wu 1991, Gigantosclera Wu 1991, Tubulispongia Wu 1991; Disjectoporidae] RLS04

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[BU02] Bates, D. E. B., & A. Urbanek. 2002. The ultrastructure, development, and systematic position of the graptolite genus Mastigograptus. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (3): 445–458.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[B86] Brazier, J. 1886. Notes on the distribution of Ceratella fusca, Gray. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (2): 575–576.

[B70] Bulman, O. M. B. 1970. Graptolithina with sections on Enteropneusta and Pterobranchia. In: Teichert, T. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt V 2nd ed. pp. V1–V149. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and the University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[CS-P86] Clausen, C., & L. v. Salvini-Plawen. 1986. Cnidaria. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 33–42. E. J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[C45] Colenso, W. 1845. Memoranda of an excursion, made in the Northern Island of New Zealand, in the summer of 1841–2; intended as a contribution towards the natural productions of the New Zealand groupe: with particular reference to their botany (concluded). Tasmanian Journal of Natural Science 2: 241–308.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[D56] Dawes, B. 1956. The Trematoda with special reference to British and other European forms. University Press: Cambridge.

[DPH05] Dunn, C. W., P. R. Pugh & S. H. D. Haddock. 2005. Molecular phylogenetics of the Siphonophora (Cnidaria), with implications for the evolution of functional specialization. Systematic Biology 54 (6): 916–935.

[EL11] Erwin, D. H., M. Laflamme, S. M. Tweedt, E. A. Sperling, D. Pisani & K. J. Peterson. 2011. The Cambrian conundrum: early divergence and later ecological success in the early history of animals. Science 334: 1091–1097.

[F27] Finlay, H. J. 1927. New specific names for austral Mollusca. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 488–533.

[G79] Glaessner, M. F. 1979. Precambrian. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A79–A118. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[H15] Harmer, S. F. 1915. The Polyzoa of the Siboga Expedition—Part I. Entoprocta, Ctenostomata and Cyclostomata. E. J. Brill: Leyden.

[IF02] Ivantsov, A. Yu., & M. A. Fedonkin. 2002. Conulariid-like fossil from the Vendian of Russia: A metazoan clade across the Proterozoic/Palaeozoic boundary. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1219–1229.

[KC60] Knight, J. B., L. R. Cox, A. M. Keen, R. L. Batten, E. L. Yochelson & R. Robertson. 1960. Gastropoda: systematic descriptions. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt I. Mollusca 1: Mollusca—General Features, Scaphopoda, Amphineura, Monoplacophora, Gastropoda—General Features, Archaeogastropoda and some (mainly Paleozoic) Caenogastropoda and Opisthobranchia pp. I169–I331. Geological Society of America, and University of Kansas Press.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[P79] Petersen, K. W. 1979. Development of coloniality in Hydrozoa. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 105–139. Academic Press: London.

[RLS04] Rigby, J. K., G. A. Linder & C. H. Stevens. 2004. A new occurrence of the “hydrozoan” Radiotrabeculopora reticulata Fan, Rigby, and Zhang, 1991 in the Permian of California. Journal of Paleontology 78 (2): 410–413.

[RS01] Roniewicz, E., & J. Stolarski. 2001. Triassic roots of the amphiastraeid scleractinian corals. Journal of Paleontology 75 (1): 34–45.

[RL03] Ryland, J. S., & J. E. Lancaster. 2003. Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 407–428.

[SG-M98] Schäfer, P., & J. A. Grant-Mackie. 1998. Revised systematics and palaeobiogeography of some Late Triassic colonial invertebrates from the Pacific region. Alcheringa 22 (2): 87–122.

[S02] Scott, R. W. 2002. Albian caprinid rudists from Texas re-evaluated. Journal of Paleontology 76 (3): 408–423.

[VV77] Vervoort, W., & P. Vasseur. 1977. Hydroids from French Polynesia with notes on distribution and ecology. Zoologische Verhandelingen 159: 1–98.

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