Rhodophyllis membranacea, copyright Gary W. Saunders.

Belongs within: Florideophycidae.
Contains: Callophyllis, Gigartina.

The Gigartinales is a diverse group of red algae, in which the auxiliary cells of the carpogonium transformed from ordinary vegetative cells or contained in special accessory systems.

Characters (from Womersley 1994): Thallus macroscopic, crustose or erect and frondose to much branched, rarely minute and parasitic; branches terete to compressed or flat, usually not calcified, cartilaginous to mucilaginous. Structure uniaxial or multiaxial, loosely filamentous to pseudo-parenchymatous. Cells varying in shape, uni- to multinucleate; rhodoplasts discoid, numerous per cell, without pyrenoids; pit-plugs without cap layers. Growth of branches and filaments apical. Reproduction: Sexual thalli monoecious or dioecious; procarpic or non-procarpic. Carpogonial branches usually situated on inner cortical cells, 3 to several cells long, straight or curved, inwardly or outwardly projecting, with the supporting cell mono- or polycarpogonial, with one or more connecting filaments from the fertilized carpogonium or other cells after fusion. Auxiliary cells in special accessory systems or branches or transformed from ordinary vegetative cells. Carposporophytes within the cortex, in protuberant cystocarps, or in surface nemathecia, with or without a filamentous enveloping tissue or pericarp. Spermatangia cut off from surface cortical cells. Tetrasporophytes crustose or erect, tetrasporangia derived from cortical cells or within nemathecia, usually terminal but intercalary in a few taxa, cruciately, zonately or irregularly divided. Life history usually triphasic, with isomorphic or heteromorphic gametophytes and tetrasporophytes.

    |  i. s.: Chondrus crispus HSA03
    |         Mazzaella laminarioides SK02
    |         Mastocarpus papillatus HSA03
    |         Nizymenia australis HSA03
    |--Acrosymphyton [Acrosymphytaceae] HJ08
    |    `--A. taylorii Abbott 1962 HJ08
    |--Corynocystis Kraft in Kraft et al. 1999 [Corynocystaceae] HL09
    |    `--C. prostrata Kraft in Kraft et al. 1999 HL09
    |--Portieria Zanardini 1851 [Rhizophyllidaceae] HL09
    |    `--P. hornemannii (Lyngbye) Silva 1987 [=Desmia hornemannii Lyngbye 1819, Chondrococcus hornemannii] HL09
    |--Hypnea Lamouroux 1813 [Hypneaceae] HL09
    |    |--H. japonica BG16
    |    `--H. musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux 1813 HJ08
    |--Petrocelis Agardh 1852 K98 [Cruoriaceae S57]
    |    |--P. franciscana Setchell & Gardner in Gardner 1917 S57
    |    `--P. middendorffii (Ruprecht) Kjellman 1883 S57
    |--Peyssonnelia Decaisne 1841 [Peyssonneliaceae] HL09
    |    |--P. conchicola K98
    |    |--P. guadalupensis Dawson 1960 K98
    |    |--P. harveyana Agardh 1852 K98
    |    |--P. inamoena Pilger 1911 HL09
    |    |--P. pacifica Kylin 1925 K98
    |    `--P. rubra (Greville) Agardh 1851 L27
    |--Solieriaceae HJ08
    |    |--Turnerella mertensiana (Postels & Ruprecht) Schmitz 1889 [=Iridaea mertensiana] S57
    |    |--Agardhiella coulteri (Harvey) Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1897 (see below for synonymy) S57
    |    |--Opuntiella californica (Farlow) Kylin 1925 S57
    |    |--Sarcodiotheca furcata (Setchell & Gardner) Kylin 1932 [=Anatheca furcata] S57
    |    |--Eucheuma denticulatum (Burman) Collins & Hervey 1917 HJ08
    |    `--Solieria W03
    |         |--S. chordalis H04
    |         `--S. tenera W03
    |--Kallymeniaceae S57
    |    |--Pugetia fragilissima Kylin 1925 S57
    |    |--Erythrophyllum delesserioides Agardh 1872 S57
    |    |--Callophyllis S57
    |    |--Callocolax S57
    |    |    |--C. fungiformis Kylin 1925 S57
    |    |    |--C. globulosis Dawson 1945 S57
    |    |    `--C. neglectus Schmitz ex Batters 1895 L27
    |    `--Kallymenia HSA03
    |         |--K. antarctica GW97
    |         |--K. bleckii N10
    |         |--K. oblongifructa Setchell 1912 [=Callymenia oblongifructa, Iridaea oblongifructa] S57
    |         |--K. ornata (Postels & Ruprecht) Agardh 1851 [=Callymenia ornata] S57
    |         |--K. reniformis (Turner) Agardh 1842 [=Callymenia reniformis] S57
    |         `--K. tasmanica HSA03
    |--Sphaerococcaceae L27
    |    |--Sphaerococcus cornopifolius SK02
    |    |--Sarcocladia crateriformis Agardh 1876 L27
    |    |--Calliblepharis prolifera (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Rhodymenia prolifera] L27
    |    |--Phacelocarpus L27
    |    |    |--P. alatus Harvey 1855 L27
    |    |    `--P. labillardieri (Mertens) Agardh 1852 L27
    |    |--Sarcodia L27
    |    |    |--S. flabellata Levring 1949 L49
    |    |    |--S. grandifolia Levring 1949 L49
    |    |    `--S. montagneana Agardh 1852 L27
    |    `--Curdiaea L27
    |         |--C. coriacea (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876 L27
    |         |--C. engelharti Agardh 1901 L27
    |         `--C. laciniata L27
    |--Rhodophyllidaceae SK02
    |    |--Euthora fruticulosa (Ruprecht) Agardh 1852 S57
    |    |--Craspedocarpus erosus (Harvey) Schmitz. 1897 (see below for synonymy) L27
    |    |--Carpococcus linearis Agardh 1876 L27
    |    |--Areschougia laurencia Hooker & Harvey 1847 L27
    |    |--Thysanocladia laxa Sonder 1852 L27
    |    |--Rissonella verruculosa H04
    |    |--Catenella L27
    |    |    |--C. oligarthra Agardh 1876 L27
    |    |    `--C. opuntia (Good & Woodw.) Greville 1830 L27
    |    |         |--C. o. var. opuntia L27
    |    |         `--C. o. var. fusiformis Agardh 1876 L27
    |    `--Rhodophyllis SK02
    |         |--R. acanthocarpa (Hooker & Harvey) Agardh 1876 L27
    |         |--R. angustifrons Hooker & Harvey 1855 L27
    |         |--R. gunnii Harvey 1845 L27
    |         |--R. lacerata Hooker & Harvey 1855 L27
    |         |--R. laingii Cotton 1908 L27
    |         |--R. membranacea Hooker & Harvey 1845 L27
    |         `--R. volans SK02
    |--Dumontiaceae HL09
    |    |--Cryptosiphonia woodii Agardh 1876 S57
    |    |--Thuretellopsis peggiana Kylin 1925 S57
    |    |--Weeksia fryeana Setchell 1912 S57
    |    |--Gibsmithia Doty 1963 HL09
    |    |    `--G. hawaiiensis Doty 1963 HL09
    |    |--Dumontia HSA03
    |    |    |--D. alaskana HSA03
    |    |    `--D. contorta MS02
    |    |--Pikea S57
    |    |    |--P. californica Harvey 1853 S57
    |    |    `--P. pinnata Setchell in Collins, Holdern & Setchell 1899 S57
    |    |--Farlowia S57
    |    |    |--F. compressa Agardh 1876 S57
    |    |    `--F. mollis (Harvey & Bailey) Farlow & Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1901 (see below for synonymy) S57
    |    |--Dilsea S57
    |    |    |--D. californica (Agardh) Kuntze 1891 [=Sarcophyllis californica] S57
    |    |    `--D. carnosa RS99
    |    `--Constantinea S57
    |         |--C. rosamarina H04
    |         |--C. simplex Setchell 1901 S57
    |         `--C. subulifera Setchell 1906 S57
    `--Gigartinaceae S57
         |--Gigartina S57
         |--Rhodoglossum S57
         |    |--R. affine (Harvey) Kylin 1928 [=Chondrus affinis] S57
         |    `--R. latissimum Agardh 1876 S57
         |--Mychodea L27
         |    |--M. carnosa SK02
         |    `--M. foliosa (Harvey) Agardh 1876 [=Gymnogongrus foliosus] L27
         |--Dicranema L27
         |    |--D. aciculare Agardh 1876 L27
         |    `--D. grevillei Sonder 1845 L27
         |--Dactylymenia L27
         |    |--D. berggreni Agardh 1899 [incl. Rhodymenia ornata] L27
         |    |--D. digitata Agardh 1899 L27
         |    `--D. laingii Agardh 1899 L27
         `--Iridaea S57
              |--I. cordata (Turner) Bory 1826 S57 (see below for synonymy)
              |--I. coriacea (Setchell & Gardner) Scagel 1957 [=Iridophycus coriaceum] S57
              |--I. heterocarpa Postels & Ruprecht 1840 [=Iridophycus heterocarpum] S57
              |--I. laminarioides Bory 1829 L27
              |--I. latissima (Hooker & Harvey) Grun. 1870 [=Halymenia latissima Hooker & Harvey 1847] L27
              `--I. whidbeyana (Setchell & Gardner) Scagel 1957 [=Iridophycus whidbeyana] S57

Inorganic: Chondrus binneyi King 1850 H75

Agardhiella coulteri (Harvey) Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1897 [=Hypriea coulteri, Rhabdonia coulteri] S57

Craspedocarpus erosus (Harvey) Schmitz. 1897 [=Callophyllis erosa, Rhodophyllis erosa; incl. R. chathamensis Cotton 1907] L27

Farlowia mollis (Harvey & Bailey) Farlow & Setchell in Collins, Holden & Setchell 1901 [=Gigartina mollis] S57

Iridaea cordata (Turner) Bory 1826 S57 [=Iridaea laminarioides f. cordata S57, Iridophycus cordatum S57; incl. Iridaea micans Bory 1828 L27]

*Type species of generic name indicated


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