Female common brown harvestman Phalangium opilio, copyright Didier Descouens.

Belongs within: Phalangiidae.

Phalangium is a genus of harvestmen found in Europe and western Asia, with the species P. opilio also found in North America and introduced to Australasia. A number of the species listed below are nomina dubia dating to early circumscriptions of this genus including a much broader range of species; most are probably not correctly placed.

Characters (from Martens 1978): Truncus penis long and narrow, narrowed continuously from the basal end distad, slightly dilated below glans joint, slightly spoon-shaped and concave. Glans ventrally strongly and roundly angled. Chelicerae with second segment usually strongly sexually dimorphic; male with horn-like extension dorsally, basal segment sometimes bulging; female without these characters. Pedipalp remarkably narrow and comparatively long, yet considerably shorter than legs. Legs strong, denticulate. Lamellae with one pointed denticle each.

<==Phalangium Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Cerastoma Koch 1839] C92
    |--*P. opilio Linnaeus 1758 C92 (see below for synonymy)
    |--P. aegyptiacum Savigny 1816 (n. d.) S84
    |--P. copticum Savigny 1816 (n. d.) [=P. qobticum (l. c.)] S84
    |--P. coronatum Fabricius 1779 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. ghissaricum Gricenko 1976 GF11
    |--P. grossipes Müller 1776 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. minutum Meade 1861 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. pallidum Müller 1776 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. pareissii Kollar in Roewer 1911 R23
    |--P. punctipes (Koch 1878) CK05 [incl. Egaenus ephippiatus Roewer 1911 S03]
    |--P. pygnogonum Müller 1776 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. rudipalpe Gervais 1849 (n. d.) R23
    |--P. savignyi Audouin 1825 S04 [=Cerastoma savignyi R23]
    |--P. succineum Presl 1822 (n. d.) D07
    `--P. targionii (Canestrini 1872) S84 [=Opilio targionii R23]

Nomina nuda: Phalangium cruditum Latreille in Roewer 1923 R23
             Phalangium dorsale Kollar in Roewer 1923 R23
             Phalangium morbillosum Kollar in Roewer 1923 R23
             Phalangium muricatum Kollar in Roewer 1923 R23
             Phalangium truncatum Kollar in Roewer 1923 R23

*Phalangium opilio Linnaeus 1758 C92 [incl. Cerastoma aduncum Koch 1870 D03, Opilio angulatichelis Roewer 1952 S03, C. brevicorne Koch 1839 D04, Phalangium brevicorne D04, P. calabrianum Roewer 1956 D04, P. canescens Meade 1855 D04, Cerastoma capricorne Koch 1869 D04, P. cornutum Linné 1767 D04, *C. cornutum C92, Opilio cornutus D04, C. curvicorne Koch 1839 D04, C. dentatum Koch 1872 D04, Phalangium longicorne Simon 1882 D04, P. longipalpis Weed 1889 D04, Dentizacheus minor Rambla 1966 D04, Opilio molluscus Koch 1867 D04, Cerastoma molluscum D04, Phalangium molluscum D04, Eudasylobus polonicus Roewer 1956 D04, Opilio praefectus Koch 1867 D04, Cerastoma praefectum D04, C. tirolense Koch 1869 D04, Phalangium tirolense D04, Eudasylobus unicolor Roewer 1911 M78]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CK05] Chemeris, A. N., & N. M. Kovblyuk. 2005. A contribution to the knowledge of the harvestman fauna of the Crimea (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arthropoda Selecta 14 (4): 305–328.

[C92] Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfamily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Museum Contributions in Anthropology and Natural History 8: 1–60.

[D04] Delfosse, E. 2004. Catalogue préliminaire des Opilions de France métropolitaine (Arachnida Opiliones). Bulletin de Phyllie 20: 34–58.

[D07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[GF11] Gabryś, G., M. Felska, A. Kłosińska, W. Staręga & J. Mąkol. 2011. Harvestmen (Opiliones) as hosts of Parasitengona (Acari: Actinotrichida, Prostigmata) larvae. Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 349–351.

[M78] Martens, J. 1978. Spinnentiere, Arachnida: Weberknechte, Opiliones. Gustav Fischer Verlag: Jena.

[R23] Roewer, C.-F. 1923. Die Weberknechte der Erde: Systematische Bearbeitung der bisher bekannnten Opiliones. Gustav Fischer: Jena.

[S04] Snegovaya, N. Y. 2004. Preliminary notes on the harvestman fauna (Opiliones) of Azerbaijan. Arthropoda Selecta Special Issue 1: 307–318.

[S84] Staręga, W. 1984. Revision der Phalangiidae (Opiliones), III. Die afrikanischen Gattungen der Phalangiinae, nebst Katalog aller afrikanischen Arten der Familie. Annales Zoologici 38 (1): 1–79.

[S03] Staręga, W. 2003. On the identity and synonymies of some Asiatic Opilioninae (Opiliones: Phalangiidae). Acta Arachnologica 52 (2): 91–102.

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