Scrippsiella trochoidea, from Phyto'pedia.

Belongs within: Peridinea.
Contains: Oodiniaceae.

The Thoracosphaeraceae are a group of dinoflagellates of which many members are unique among alveolates in producing calcareous structures, either as resting cysts or during vegetative stages (Gottschling et al. 2005, as Calciodinellaceae), though molecular phylogenies also indicate the inclusion of a number of non-calcareous taxa in this clade.

Thoracosphaeraceae (see below for synonymy) AS12
    |--+--‘Peridinium’ inconspicuum C-SC04
    |  |--‘Amphidinium’ longum C-SC04
    |  |--Zooxanthella Brandt 1881 C-SC04, FT93 [incl. Philozoon Geddes 1882 FT93; Zooxanthellaceae, Zooxanthellales]
    |  |    `--Z. nutricola C-SC04
    |  |--Pentapharsodinium Idelicato & Loeblich 1986 GK05, FT93
    |  |    |--P. dalei GK05
    |  |    `--P. tyrrhenicum GK05
    |  `--Ensiculifera Balech 1967 GK05, FT93
    |       |--E. imariensis GK05
    |       |--E. loeblichii Cox & Arnott 1970 GK05
    |       `--E. mexicana Balech 1967 FT93
    `--+--+--+--‘Peridinium’ aciculiferum GK05
       |  |  `--‘Scrippsiella’ hangoei GK05
       |  `--+--Pfiesteria piscicida GK05
       |     `--+--Leonella granifera GK05
       |        `--Thoracosphaera Kamptner 1927 GK05, FT93
       |             |--*T. heimii (Lohmann 1920) Kamptner 1944 FT93
       |             `--T. imperfecta Kamptner 1946 FT93
       `--+--Pernambugia tuberosa GK05
          `--Scrippsiella Balech ex Loeblich 1965 GK05, FT93 [incl. Endodinium Hovasse 1922 FT93]
               |  i. s.: S. faeroeense (Paulsen) Balech & Soares 1967 [=Peridinium faeroeense] S73
               |         S. nutricula AA05
               |         S. patagonica Akselman & Keupp 1990 (see below for synonymy) FT93
               |         S. saladense Balech 1963 S73
               |         S. subsalsa (Ostenfeld 1908) Steidinger & Balech 1977 FT93
               |--+--S. precaria GK05
               |  `--S. ramonii GK05
               |--+--Calciodinellum Deflandre 1947 GK05, FT93
               |  |    |--C. albatrosianum GK05
               |  |    `--C. operosum Deflandre 1947 FT93
               |  `--+--S. rotunda GK05
               |     `--Calcigonellum Deflandre 1948 GK05, FT93 [incl. Calciogranellum Deflandre 1948 FT93]
               |          `--C. infula GK05
               `--+--S. lachrymosa GK05
                  `--+--*S. sweeneyae Balech ex Loeblich 1965 GK05, FT93 [=S. sweeneyi S73]
                     |--‘Calciodinellum’ levantinum GK05
                     |--S. trifida GK05
                     `--S. trochoidea GK05 [=Peridinium trochoideum (Stein 1883) Lemmermann 1910 FT93]
                          |--S. t. var. trochoidea GK05
                          `--S. t. var. aciculifera GK05

Thoracosphaeraceae incertae sedis:
  Alasphaera Keupp 1979 FT93
  Calcicarpinum Deflandre 1948 FT93
  Calcipterellum Deflandre 1948 FT93
  Carinellum Keupp 1981 FT93
  Cubodinellum Keupp 1987 FT93
  Dimorphosphaera Keupp 1979 FT93
  Echinodinella Keupp 1980 FT93
  Gonellum Keupp 1987 FT93
  Heptasphaera Keupp 1979 FT93
  Keuppisphaera Lentin & Williams 1989 [=Hexasphaera Keupp 1987 non Clarke & Verdier 1967] FT93
  Nephrodinella Keupp 1981 FT93
  Orthocarinellum Keupp 1987 FT93
  Praecalcigonellum Keupp & Versteegh 1989 FT93
  Pithonella Lorenz 1902 FT93, MS99 (see below for synonymy)
    `--*Cadosinella’ gracillimoides Vogler 1941 LT64
  Sliteria Krasheninnikov & Basov 1983 FT93
  Sphaerodinella Keupp & Versteegh 1989 FT93
  Tetramerosphaera Willems 1985 FT93
  Tetratropis Willems 1990 FT93
  Orthopithonella Keupp in Keupp & Mutterlose 1984 FT93
    `--O. globosa (Fütterer 1984) Lentin & Williams 1985 FT93
  Bicarinellum Deflandre 1948 [incl. Biechelerella Deflandre 1948, Calcisphaerellum Deflandre 1948] FT93
    `--B. calvum Keupp 1979 FT93
  Pirumella Bolli 1980 [incl. Obliquipithonella Keupp in Keupp & Mutterlose 1984] FT93
    |--‘Pithonella’ thayeri Bolli 1974 (see below for synonymy) FT93
    |--P. krasheninnikovii (Bolli 1974) Lentin & Williams 1993 FM03
    `--‘Obliquipithonella’ patriciagreeleyae (Bölli 1974) Lentin & Williams 1985 FT93
  Caracomia GK05
  Bysmatrum GK05
  Fibrosphaera Colom 1935 MSV00
    `--F. stephanoidea Colom 1935 ADD88
  Stomiosphaera Wanner 1940 MSV00
    `--*S. moluccana Wanner 1940 ADD88
  Cadosina Wanner 1940 MSV00
    `--*C. fusca Wanner 1941 LT64
  Calcisphaerula Bonet 1956 FT93, MSV00
    `--*C. innominata Bonet 1956 H75
  Schizosphaerella Deflandre & Dangeard 1938 FT93 (see below for synonymy)
    |--*S. punctulata Deflandre & Dangeard 1938 (see below for synonymy) ADD88
    `--S. astraea Moshikovitz 1979 [=S. astrea (l. c.)] ADD88
  Oodiniaceae AS12
  Cryptoperidiniopsis brodyi AS12, C-SC04
  Paulsenella Chatton 1920 AS12, FT93
  Stoeckeria AS12
  Tyrannodinium AS12

Pithonella Lorenz 1902 FT93, MS99 [incl. Cadosinella Vogler 1941 FT93, Carpistomiosphaera Nowak 1968 FT93, Parastomiosphaera Nowak 1968 FT93]

‘Pithonella’ thayeri Bolli 1974 [=Obliquipithonella thayeri (Bolli) Lentin & Williams 1985; incl. *Pirumella edithvincentiae Bolli 1980] FT93

Schizosphaerella Deflandre & Dangeard 1938 FT93 [incl. Colomisphaera Nowak 1968 ADD88, Nannopatina Stradner 1961 ADD88, Nipterula Farinacci 1969 ADD88]

*Schizosphaerella punctulata Deflandre & Dangeard 1938 [incl. Nannopatina grandaeva Stradner 1961, Fibrosphaera minutissima Colom 1935 (nom. inv.), Cadosina minutissima, *Colomisphaera minutissima, Stomiosphaera minutissima] ADD88

Scrippsiella patagonica Akselman & Keupp 1990 [incl. Obliquipithonella irregularis Akselman & Keupp 1990 (nom. illeg.)] FT93

Thoracosphaeraceae [Cadosinidae, Calciodinellaceae, Calciodinelleae, Calciodinellidae, Calciodinelloideae, Calcisphaerulidae, Obliquipithonelloideae, Orthopithonelleae, Orthopithonelloideae, Pithonelloideae, Schizosphaerellaceae, Schizosphaerellidae, Stomiosphaeridae, Thoracosphaerales, Thoracosphaeroideae] AS12

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[AA05] Afanasieva, M. S., E. O. Amon, Y. V. Agarkov & D. S. Boltovskoy. 2005. Radiolarians in the geological record. Paleontological Journal 39 (Suppl. 3): S135–S392.

[ADD88] Aubry, M.-P., F. Depêche & T. Dufour. 1988. Stomiosphaera minutissima (Colom, 1935) from the Lias of Mallorca (Balearic Islands) and Umbria (Italy), and Schizosphaerella punctulata Deflandre & Dangeard, 1938: taxonomic revision. Geobios 21 (6): 709–727.

[C-SC04] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E. Chao. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.) European Journal of Protistology 40: 185–212.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[FM03] Friedrich, O., & K. J. S. Meier. 2003. Stable isotope indication for the cyst formation depth of Campanian/Maastrichtian calcareous dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology 49 (4): 375–380.

[GK05] Gottschling, M., H. Keupp, J. Plötner, R. Knop, H. Willems & M. Kirsch. 2005. Phylogeny of calcareous dinoflagellates as inferred from ITS and ribosomal sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 36: 444–455.

[H75] Häntzschel, W. 1975. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt W. Miscellanea Suppl. 1. Trace Fossils and Problematica 2nd ed. The Geological Society of America: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MS99] Munnecke, A., C. Samtleben, T. Servais & D. Vachard. 1999. SEM-observation of calcareous micro- and nannofossils incertae sedis from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden: preliminary results. Geobios 32 (2): 307–314.

[MSV00] Munnecke, A., T. Servais & D. Vachard. 2000. A new family of calcareous microfossils from the Silurian of Gotland, Sweden. Palaeontology 43 (6): 1153–1172.

[S73] Sournia, A. 1973. Catalogue des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques de Dinoflagellés marins actuels publiés depuis la révision de J. Schiller. I. Dinoflagellés libres. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 48: 1–92.

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