Emberizidae

Baird's sparrow Ammodramus bairdii, photographed by Dominic Sherony.


Belongs within: Passeroidea.
Contains: Arremon, Melozone, Atlapetes, Spizella.

The Emberizidae is a family of small, conical-billed, seed-eating birds including the buntings and the New World sparrows. Most species are patterned in dull colours, though there are exceptions. The buntings of the genus Emberiza, found in Eurasia and Africa, are mostly coloured in brown with streaks of black, white and grey, sometimes marked with yellow, and usually with the outer tail feathers partly or wholly white (Austin 1961). The New World sparrows form the sister clade to the buntings; these commonly lack the white edges to the tail.

<==Emberizidae [Emberizinae, Emberizini]
    |--Emberiza Linnaeus 1758 JF06, M02
    |    |  i. s.: E. cineracea JT12
    |    |         E. koslowi JT12
    |    |         E. leucocephala Gmel. 1770 M01
    |    |         E. poliopleura JT12
    |    |         E. socotrana JT12
    |    |         E. vincenti JT12
    |    |--+--+--E. cabanisi JT12
    |    |  |  `--E. flaviventris JT12
    |    |  |       |--E. f. flaviventris S05
    |    |  |       `--E. f. flavigaster Cretzschmar 1828 [=E. xanthogaster (l. c.)] S04
    |    |  `--+--E. capensis JT12
    |    |     `--+--E. impetuani JT12
    |    |        `--+--E. striolata JT12
    |    |           `--E. tahapisi JT12 [=Fringillaria tahapisi B93]
    |    |                |--E. t. tahapisi B93
    |    |                |--E. t. nivenorum (Winterbottom 1964) [=Fringillaria tahapisi nivenorum] B93
    |    |                `--E. t. septemstriata Rüppell 1837 S05
    |    `--+--+--+--Melophus JT12
    |       |  |  |    |--M. lathami JT12
    |       |  |  |    `--M. melanicterus S89
    |       |  |  `--+--E. bruniceps JT12
    |       |  |     `--E. melanocephala JT12
    |       |  `--+--E. calandra BKB15 [=Miliaria calandra JT12]
    |       |     `--+--+--E. jankowskii JT12
    |       |        |  `--+--E. cioides Brandt 1843 BKB15, M01
    |       |        |     `--+--E. cia BKB15
    |       |        |        |    |--E. c. cia A02
    |       |        |        |    |--E. c. khamensis A02
    |       |        |        |    |--E. c. par A02
    |       |        |        |    `--E. c. stracheyi A02
    |       |        |        `--E. godlewskii BKB15
    |       |        `--+--+--E. buchanani JT12
    |       |           |  `--+--E. caesia JT12
    |       |           |     `--E. hortulana Linnaeus 1758 JT12, CC10
    |       |           `--+--E. cirlus Linnaeus 1766 JT12, CC10
    |       |              `--+--E. stewarti JT12
    |       |                 `--+--*E. citrinella Linnaeus 1758 CC10, JT12, M02
    |       |                    |    |--E. c. citrinella R85
    |       |                    |    `--E. c. caliginosa Clancey 1940 R85
    |       |                    `--E. leucocephalos JT12
    |       `--+--+--Latoucheornis siemsseni JT12
    |          |  `--E. elegans Temm. 1835 JT12, M01
    |          |       |--E. e. elegans VP89
    |          |       `--E. e. ticehursti VP89
    |          `--+--+--E. yessoensis (Swinhoe 1874) JT12, I92
    |             |  |    |--E. y. yessoensis VP89
    |             |  |    `--E. y. continentalis VP89
    |             |  `--+--E. pallasi JT12
    |             |     `--E. schoeniclus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 (see below for synonymy)
    |             |          |--E. s. schoeniclus VP89
    |             |          `--E. s. pyrrhulina VP89
    |             `--+--+--E. chrysophrys BKB15
    |                |  `--+--E. tristrami JT12
    |                |     `--E. variabilis JT12
    |                `--+--E. sulphurata BKB15
    |                   `--+--+--E. aureola Pall. 1773 BKB15, M01 [=Euspiza aureola S89]
    |                      |  `--E. spodocephala JT12
    |                      |       |--E. s. spodocephala VP89
    |                      |       |--E. s. personata VP89
    |                      |       `--E. s. sordida VP89
    |                      `--+--E. rutila BKB15 [=Euspiza rutila S89]
    |                         `--+--E. pusilla Pall. 1776 BKB15, M01
    |                            `--+--E. fucata BKB15 [=E. fuscata S89]
    |                               `--E. rustica Pall. 1776 BKB15, M01
    `--+--+--Chlorospingus BKB15
       |  |    |  i. s.: C. flavovirens JT12
       |  |    |--+--C. flavigularis BKB15
       |  |    |  `--C. parvirostris JT12
       |  |    `--+--C. canigularis BKB15
       |  |       `--+--C. pileatus JT12
       |  |          `--+--C. ophthalmicus JT12
       |  |             `--+--C. tacarcunae BKB15
       |  |                `--+--C. inornatus BKB15
       |  |                   `--C. semifuscus BKB15
       |  `--+--Arremon BKB15
       |     `--+--+--+--‘Spizella’ arborea BKB15
       |        |  |  `--Passerella Swainson 1837 JT12, B94 [Passerellinae]
       |        |  |       `--P. iliaca JF06 [=Zonotrichia iliaca WBSJ82]
       |        |  |            |--P. i. iliaca Z83
       |        |  |            |--P. i. brevicauda Z83
       |        |  |            |--P. i. canescens Z83
       |        |  |            |--P. i. fulva Z83
       |        |  |            |--P. i. megarhyncha Z83
       |        |  |            |--P. i. monoensis Z83
       |        |  |            `--P. i. stephensi Z83
       |        |  `--+--Junco Wagler 1831 JT12, B94 [incl. Struthus Bonaparte 1838 B94; Struthinae]
       |        |     |    |--J. hyemalis JF06
       |        |     |    |--J. insularis MS55
       |        |     |    |--J. oreganus A61
       |        |     |    |--J. phaeonotus JF06
       |        |     |    `--J. vulcani JT12
       |        |     `--Zonotrichia Swainson 1832 JT12, B94 [Zonotrichiinae]
       |        |          |--Z. capensis L85
       |        |          |    |--Z. c. capensis FS55
       |        |          |    `--Z. c. costaricensis FS55
       |        |          `--+--+--Z. albicollis JT12
       |        |             |  `--Z. querula JT12
       |        |             `--+--Z. atricapilla JT12
       |        |                `--Z. leucophrys JT12
       |        `--+--+--+--Pezopetes capitalis BKB15
       |           |  |  `--Melozone BKB15
       |           |  `--+--Pipilo Vieillot 1816 BKB15, B94 [Pipiloninae]
       |           |     |    |  i. s.: P. consobrinus MS55
       |           |     |    |--P. ocai JT12
       |           |     |    `--+--P. chlorurus JT12
       |           |     |       `--+--P. erythrophtalmus JT12
       |           |     |          `--P. maculatus JT12
       |           |     `--Atlapetes JT12
       |           `--+--+--Oriturus superciliosus BKB15
       |              |  `--‘Amphispiza’ belli BKB15
       |              `--+--+--Passerculus sandwichensis BKB15
       |                 |  `--+--‘Ammodramus’ bairdii BKB15
       |                 |     `--+--Xenospiza baileyi JT12
       |                 |        `--Melospiza JF06
       |                 |             |--+--M. georgiana JF06
       |                 |             |  `--M. lincolnii JF06
       |                 |             `--M. melodia JF06
       |                 |                  |--M. m. melodia USDI77
       |                 |                  `--M. m. graminea USDI77
       |                 `--+--Pooecetes gramineus BKB15
       |                    `--+--‘Ammodramus’ henslowii BKB15
       |                       `--+--‘Ammodramus’ leconteii BKB15
       |                          `--+--‘Ammodramus’ maritimus JT12
       |                             |    |--A. m. maritimus OM91
       |                             |    |--A. m. fisheri LG91
       |                             |    |--A. m. juncicola LG91
       |                             |    |--A. m. macgillivraii LG91
       |                             |    |--A. m. mirabilis LG91
       |                             |    |--A. m. nigrescens OM92
       |                             |    |--A. m. pelonotus LG91
       |                             |    |--A. m. peninsulae OM91
       |                             |    `--A. m. sennetti LG91
       |                             `--+--‘Ammodramus’ caudacutus JT12
       |                                `--‘Ammodramus’ nelsoni JT12
       `--+--+--+--Chondestes Swainson 1827 BKB15, B94 [Chondestinae]
          |  |  |    `--C. grammacus JF06
          |  |  `--+--Calamospiza Bonaparte 1838 BKB15, B94 [Calamospizinae]
          |  |     |    `--C. melanocorys JF06
          |  |     `--Amphispiza BKB15
          |  |          |--A. bilineata JT12
          |  |          `--A. quinquestriata BKB15 [=Aimophila quinquestriata JT12]
          |  `--Spizella BKB15
          `--+--Rhynchospiza BKB15
             |    |--R. stolzmanni BKB15 [=Aimophila stolzmanni JT12]
             |    `--R. strigiceps BKB15 [=Aimophila strigiceps JT12]
             `--+--Peucaea BKB15
                |    |--+--P. carpalis BKB15 [=Aimophila carpalis JT12]
                |    |  `--P. sumichrasti BKB15 [=Aimophila sumichrasti JT12]
                |    `--+--+--P. botterii BKB15 [=Aimophila botterii JT12]
                |       |  `--+--P. aestivalis BKB15 [=Aimophila aestivalis JT12]
                |       |     `--P. cassinii BKB15 [=Aimophila cassinii JT12]
                |       `--+--P. ruficauda BKB15 [=Aimophila ruficauda JT12]
                |          `--+--P. humeralis BKB15 [=Aimophila humeralis JT12]
                |             `--P. mystacalis BKB15 [=Aimophila mystacalis JT12]
                `--+--Ammodramus Swainson 1827 BKB15, B94 [Ammodraminae]
                   |    |  i. s.: A. sandwichensis WBSJ82
                   |    |--+--A. aurifrons JT12
                   |    |  `--A. humeralis JT12
                   |    `--+--‘Atlapetes’ rufinucha BKB15
                   |       `--A. savannarum JT12
                   `--Arremonops JT12
                        |  i. s.: A. tocuyensis JT12
                        |--A. conirostris JT12
                        `--+--A. chloronotus JT12
                           `--A. rufivirgatus JT12

Emberizidae incertae sedis:
  Palaeostruthus FP64
  Ammospiza maritima FP64, USDI77
    |--A. m. maritima USDI77
    |--A. m. mirabilis USDI77
    `--A. m. nigrescens USDI77
  Oreothraupis arremonops JT12
  Piezorhina cinerea JT12
  Xenospingus concolor JT12
  Torreornis inexpectata JT12
    |--T. i. inexpectata HSS13
    |--T. i. sigmani HSS13
    `--T. i. varonai HSS13
  Urothraupis stolzmanni JT12
  Charitospiza eucosma JT12
  Coryphaspiza melanotis JT12
  Incaspiza JT12
    |--I. laeta JT12
    |--I. ortizi JT12
    |--I. personata JT12
    |--I. pulchra JT12
    `--I. watkinsi JT12
  Buarremon JF06
    |--B. brunneinucha [=Atlapetes brunneinucha] JF06
    |--B. castaneiceps Sclater 1859 S66
    `--B. mesoxanthus Salvin 1866 S66

Inorganic: Emberiza variabilis minilorientalis Okamura 1987 O87

Emberiza schoeniclus (Linnaeus 1758) JT12, CC10 [=Fringilla schoeniclus CC10, E. schoeniculus (l. c.) CC10]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A02] Andheria, A. P. 2002. Sighting of the rock bunting Emberiza cia Linn. in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 93 (3): 536–537.

[A61] Austin, O. L., Jr. 1961. Birds of the World: A survey of the twenty-seven orders and one hundred and fifty-five families. Paul Hamlyn: London.

[B94] Bock, W. J. 1994. History and nomenclature of avian family-group names. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 222: 1–281.

[B93] Brooke, R. K. 1993. Annotated catalogue of the Aves type specimens in the South African Museum. Annals of the South African Museum 102 (10): 327–349.

[BKB15] Burleigh, J. G., R. T. Kimball & E. L. Braun. 2015. Building the avian tree of life using a large-scale, sparse supermatrix. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 53–63.

[CC10] Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2010. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica 4th ed. Ornithological Society of New Zealand and Te Papa Press: Wellington.

[FS55] Felten, H., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Zur Vogelfauna von El Salvador. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 9–19.

[FP64] Fisher, J., & R. T. Peterson. 1964. The World of Birds: A comprehensive guide to general ornithology. Macdonald: London.

[HSS13] Hirschfeld, E., A. Swash & R. Still. 2013. The World's Rarest Birds. Princeton University Press: Princeton (New Jersey).

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JT12] Jetz, W., G. H. Thomas, J. B. Joy, K. Hartmann & A. Ø. Mooers. 2012. The global diversity of birds in space and time. Nature 491: 444–448.

[JF06] Jønsson, K. A., & J. Fjeldså. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds. Zoologica Scripta 35: 149–186.

[L85] Lanyon, S. M. 1985. Detecting internal inconsistencies in distance data. Systematic Zoology 34 (4): 397–403.

[LG91] Li, W.-H., & D. Graur. 1991. Fundamentals of Molecular Evolution. Sinauer: Sunderland (MA).

[M01] Madarász, J. 1901. Madarak [Vögel]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 21–39. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[MS55] Mertens, R., & J. Steinbacher. 1955. Die im Senckenberg-Museum vorhandenen Arten ausgestorbener, aussterbender oder seltener Vögel. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (3–4): 241–265.

[M02] Mlíkovský, J. 2002. Cenozoic Birds of the World. Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press: Praha.

[OM91] O’Brien, S. J., & E. Mayr. 1991. Bureaucratic mischief: Recognizing endangered species and subspecies. Science 251: 1187–1188.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[R85] Robertson, C. J. R. (ed.) 1985. Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Reader’s Digest: Sydney.

[S89] Salvadori, T. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea nella Birmania e nelle regioni vicine. XIX.—Uccelli raccolti nei Monti Carin a nord-est di Tounghoo, nel Pegù presso Rangoon e Tounghoo e nel Tenasserim presso Malewoon. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 369–438.

[S66] Salvin, O. 1866. Descriptions of eight new species of birds from Veragua. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 67–76.

[S05] Steinheimer, F. D. 2005. Eduard Rüppel’s avian types at the Natural History Museum, Tring (Aves). Senckenbergiana Biologica 85 (2): 233–264.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[VP89] Viney, C., & K. Phillipps. 1989. Birds of Hong Kong 5th ed. Government Printer: Hong Kong.

[WBSJ82] Wild Bird Society of Japan. 1982. A Field Guide to the Birds of Japan. Kodansha International Ltd.: Tokyo.

[Z83] Zink, R. M. 1983. Evolutionary and systematic significance of temporal variation in the fox sparrow. Systematic Zoology 32 (3): 223–238.

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