Eusauropoda

Reconstruction of Mamenchisaurus, copyright DiBgd.


Belongs within: Sauropoda.
Contains: Neosauropoda.

The Eusauropoda is a clade of sauropods that has been defined as the smallest clade containing Shunosaurus and Saltasaurus; it contains almost all sauropods known from the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous (Upchurch et al. 2004).

Characters (from Upchurch et al. 2004): Snout broadly rounded in dorsal view; caudal margin of external naris lying behind caudal margin of antorbital fenestra; lateral plate present on premaxillae, maxillae and dentaries; contact between dorsal ends of maxilla and lacrimal lying at caudodorsal margin of antorbital fenestra; platelike flange of bone present at base of maxillary ascending process; rostral process of quadratojugal at least twice as long as dorsal process; quadratojugal dorsal process expanded dorsoventrally at its tip; prefrontal rostral process absent; transverse width of frontals greater than rostrocaudal length; rostral tip of maxillary process of palatine expanded transversely; ectopterygoid process of pterygoid lying below rostral rim of orbit; diameter of external mandibular fenestra less than 10% of mandible length; tooth crown enamel wrinkled; caudalmost tooth lying beneath antorbital fenestra; at least twelve cervical vertebrae present; height of midcervical neural arches greater than diameter of centrum; caudal margin of caudal cervical neural spines sloping strongly forward in lateral view; dorsal surfaces of sacral plates level with dorsal margin of ilium; first caudal rib linked to neural arch by lamina; carpals blocklike; metacarpals arranged in U-shaped colonnade; manual phalanges (apart from unguals) wider transversely than proximodistally; manual digits II–IV having two or fewer phalanges; dorsal margin of ilium strongly convex in lateral view; ischial peduncle of ilium reduced, long axis of iliac blade sloping craniodorsally in lateral view; middle and distal portions of pubis lying in same plane as proximal part; femoral cranial trochanter absent; medial malleolus of tibia reduced, exposing caudal fossa of astragalus in caudal view; lateral muscle scar present at midlength on fibula; metatarsals II–IV diverging distally; ratio of length to proximal transverse width for metatarsal I 1.5 or less; pedal digit IV with three phalanges; pedal phalanges lacking collateral ligament pits; nonungual pedal phalanges wider transversely than proximodistally; pedal digits II–IV with rudimentary penultimate phalanges; ratio of ungual length to metatarsal length for pedal digit I greater than 1.0; unguals for pedal digits II and III with transversely compressed proximal articular ends.

<==Eusauropoda [Bothrosauropodidae, Cetiosauridae, Ornithopsidae, Somphospondylii]
    |  i. s.: Amygdalodon Cabrera 1947 UBD04
    |           `--A. patagonicus Cabrera 1947 UBD04
    |         Aragosaurus Sanz, Buscalioni et al. 1987 UBD04
    |           `--A. ischiaticus Sanz, Buscalioni et al. 1987 UBD04
    |--Shunosaurus Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 R-TCA06, UBD04 [Shunosaurinae]
    |    |--S. lii Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 UBD04
    |    `--S. ziliujingensis D07
    `--+--Jobaria Sereno, Beck et al. 1999 R-TCA06, UBD04
       |    `--J. tiguidensis Sereno, Beck et al. 1999 UBD04
       `--+--Atlasaurus Monbaron, Russell & Taquet 1999 R-TCA06, UBD04
          |    `--A. imelakei Monbaron, Russell & Taquet 1999 UBD04
          `--+--+--Neosauropoda R-TCA06
             |  `--Turiasauria R-TCA06
             |       |--Galveosaurus R-TCA06
             |       `--+--Losillasaurus Casanovas, Santafé & Sanz 2001 R-TCA06, UBD04
             |          |    `--L. giganteus Casanovas, Santafé & Sanz 2001 UBD04
             |          `--Turiasaurus Royo-Torres, Cobos & Alcalá 2006 R-TCA06
             |               `--*T. riodevensis Royo-Torres, Cobos & Alcalá 2006 R-TCA06
             `--+--Cetiosaurus Owen 1841 R-TCA06, UM02 [Cetiosaurinae]
                |    |--*C. oxoniensis Phillips 1871 UM02 (see below for synonymy)
                |    |--C. brachyurus (n. d.) UM02
                |    |--C. medius Owen 1842 (n. d.) UM02
                |    `--C. mogrebiensis Lapparent 1955 (n. d.) UBD04
                `--+--Patagosaurus Bonaparte 1979 R-TCA06, UBD04
                   |    `--P. fariasi Bonaparte 1979 UBD04
                   `--+--Barapasaurus Jain, Kutty et al. 1975 R-TCA06, UBD04
                      |    `--B. tagorei Jain, Kutty et al. 1975 UBD04
                      `--Euhelopodidae WS98
                           |  i. s.: Hudiesaurus Dong 1997 Y03, UBD04
                           |           `--H. sinojapanorum Dong 1997 UBD04
                           |--+--Tehuelchesaurus Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1999 UBD04
                           |  |    `--T. benitezii Rich, Vickers-Rich et al. 1999 UBD04
                           |  `--+--Cetiosauriscus Huene 1927 RR05, UBD04
                           |     |    |--C. glymptonensis (Phillips 1871) [=Cetiosaurus glymptonensis] UBD04
                           |     |    |--C. greppini D07
                           |     |    `--C. stewarti Charig 1980 [incl. Cetiosaurus leedsi Woodward 1905] UBD04
                           |     `--Omeisaurus Young 1939 R-TCA06, UBD04
                           |          |--*O. junghsiensis Young 1939 WS98, UBD04
                           |          |--O. changshouensis Young 1958 (n. d.) UBD04
                           |          |--O. fuxiensis Dong, Zhou & Zhang 1983 (n. d.) UBD04
                           |          |--O. luoquanensis Li 1988 (n. d.) UBD04
                           |          `--O. tianfuensis He, Li et al. 1984 UBD04
                           `--+--Euhelopus Romer 1956 R-TCA06, UBD04 [=Helopus Wiman 1929 (preoc.) UBD04; Euhelopodinae]
                              |    `--E. zdanskyi (Wiman 1929) [=Helopus zdanskyi] UBD04
                              `--Mamenchisaurus Young 1954 R-TCA06, UBD04 (see below for synonymy)
                                   |--M. anyuensis He, Yang et al. 1996 UBD04
                                   |--M. constructus Young 1954 UBD04
                                   |--M. fuxiensis (Hou, Chao & Chu 1976) (see below for synonymy) UBD04
                                   |--M. hochuanensis Young & Chao 1972 UBD04
                                   |--M. jingyanensis Zhang & Li in Zhang & Chen 1996 UBD04
                                   |--M. sinocanadorum Russell & Zheng 1993 UBD04
                                   `--M. youngi Pi, Ouyang & Ye 1996 UBD04

Nomina nuda: Cetiosaurus epioolithicus UM02
             Cetiosaurus hypoolithicus UM02

*Cetiosaurus oxoniensis Phillips 1871 UM02 [=Cardiodon oxoniensis UM02, Ornithopsis oxoniensis UM02; incl. Cetiosaurus giganteus Owen in Huxley 1870 (n. n.) UBD04, UM02, Cetiosaurus longus Owen 1875 UM02, Cetiosauriscus longus UBD04]

Mamenchisaurus Young 1954 R-TCA06, UBD04 [incl. Zigongosaurus Hou, Chao & Chu 1976 UBD04; Mamenchisaurinae]

Mamenchisaurus fuxiensis (Hou, Chao & Chu 1976) [=Zigongosaurus fuxiensis, Zizhongosaurus fuxiensis] UBD04

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[RR05] Rauhut, O. W. M., K. Remes, R. Fechner, G. Cladera & P. Puerta. 2005. Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia. Nature 435: 670–672.

[R-TCA06] Royo-Torres, R., A. Cobos & L. Alcalá. 2006. A giant European dinosaur and a new sauropod clade. Science 314: 1925–1927.

[UBD04] Upchurch, P., P. M. Barrett & P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In: Weishampel, D. B., P. Dodson & H. Osmólska (eds) The Dinosauria 2nd ed. pp. 259–322. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[UM02] Upchurch, P., & J. Martin. 2002. The Rutland Cetiosaurus: the anatomy and relationships of a Middle Jurassic British sauropod dinosaur. Palaeontology 45 (6): 1049–1074.

[WS98] Wilson, J. A., & P. C. Sereno. 1998. Early evolution and higher-level phylogeny of sauropod dinosaurs. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2 Suppl.): 1–68.

[Y03] Yates, A. M. 2003. A new species of the primitive dinosaur Thecodontosaurus (Saurischia: Sauropodomorpha) and its implications for the systematics of early dinosaurs. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology 1: 1–42.

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