Leptodinioideae

Cyst of Litosphaeridium arundum, from here.


Belongs within: Gonyaulacida.

The Leptodinioideae are a group of dinoflagellates known as fossil cysts from the Middle Jurassic to the Miocene (Fenson et al. 1993).

Characters (from Fensome et al. 1993): L-type ventral organisation; neutral to sinistral torsion. Four climactal (1u, B, C, A) plates present contacting the apical pore complex, not including Cv which may or may not be present; first apical homologue (1u) not significantly reduced in size compared to other apical plates. Six precingular plates, of which the distalmost, the sixth precingular homologue (li) is pentagonal and broadly geniculate at its anterior; sixth precingular homologue almost invariably contacts first apical homologue (1u). Six cingular plates; ends of cingulum not overhanging each other, sulcus straight and relatively broad throught its length. Five or six Kofoid postcingular plates; first postcingular homologue (Iu) almost invariably small, commonly within the sulcus. Fundital plates in sexiform configuration.

Leptodinioideae
    |--Ambonosphaera Fensom 1979 FT93
    |--Acanthaulax Sarjeant 1968 [=Acanthogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 non (Kofoid) Graham 1942] FT93
    |--Amphorula Dodekova 1969 FT93
    |--Carpodinium Cookson & Eisenack 1962 FT93
    |--Cernicysta Stover & Helby 1987 FT93
    |--Clathroctenocystis Wiggins 1972 FT93
    |--Cymososphaeridium Davey 1982 FT93
    |--Diacanthum Habib 1972 FT93
    |--Dichadogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 [incl. Brotzenia Horowitz 1975 non Hofker 1954 (ICZN)] FT93
    |--Durotrigia Bailey 1987 FT93
    |--Eatonicysta Stover & Evitt 1978 FT93
    |--Egmontodinium Gitmez & Sarjeant 1972 FT93
    |--Emmetrocysta Stover 1975 FT93
    |--Energlynia Sarjeant 1976 FT93
    |--Eodinia Eisenack 1936 FT93
    |--Lanterna Dodekova 1969 FT93
    |--Limbodinium Riding 1987 FT93
    |--Lophocysta Manum 1979 FT93
    |--Meiourogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966 FT93
    |--Occisucysta Gitmez 1970 FT93
    |--Omatia Cookson & Eisenack 1958 FT93
    |--Perisseiasphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |--Rotosphaeropsis Davey 1988 FT93
    |--Stiphrosphaeridium Davey 1982 FT93
    |--Tehamadinium Jan du ChĂȘne, Becheler et al. in Jan du ChĂȘne, Masure et al. 1986 FT93
    |    `--T. brixii (Below 1982) Jan du ChĂȘne et al. 1986 FT93
    |--Lithodinia Eisenack 1935 FT93
    |    `--L. jurassica Eisenack 1965 FT93
    |--Endoscrinium (Klement 1960) Vozzhenikova 1967 [incl. Athigmatocysta Duxbury 1977] FT93
    |    `--E. luridum (Deflandre 1939) Gocht 1970 RC02
    |--Conosphaeridium Cookson & Eisenack 1969 FT93
    |    `--C. striatoconum (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Cookson & Eisenack 1969 RC02
    |--Herendeenia Wiggins 1969 FT93
    |    `--H. postprojecta Stover & Helby 1987 RC02
    |--Ochetodinium Damassa 1979 FT93
    |    `--O. romanum Damassa 1979 FT93
    |--Rigaudella Below 1982 FT93
    |    `--R. aemula (Deflandre 1939) Below 1982 RC02 (see below for synonymy)
    |--Sirmiodinium Alberti 1961 FT93
    |    `--S. grossii Alberti 1961 RC02
    |--Systematophora Klement 1960 [incl. Polystephanosphaera Sarjeant 1960] FT93
    |    `--S. placacantha (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Davey et al. 1969 FT93
    |--Wanaea Cookson & Eisenack 1958 FT93
    |    `--W. acollaris Dodekova 1975 RC02
    |--Leptodinium Klement 1960 FT93
    |    |--L. mirabile Klement 1960 FT93
    |    `--L. posterosulcatum Snape 1972 RC02
    |--Ctenidodinium Deflandre 1939 [incl. Hystrichogonyaulax Sarjeant 1969] FT93
    |    |--C. combazii Dupin 1968 FT93
    |    `--C. ornatum (Eisenack 1935) Deflandre 1939 FT93
    |--Rhynchodiniopsis Deflandre 1935 FT93
    |    |--R. aptiana Deflandre 1935 FT93
    |    `--R. cladophora (Deflandre 1939) Below 1981 FT93
    |--Oligosphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |    |--O. abaculum Davey 1979 FT93
    |    |--O. complex (White 1842) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02
    |    `--O. pulcherrimum (Deflandre & Cookson 1955) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02
    |--Areosphaeridium Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    |--A. arcuatum Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    |--A. diktyoplokus (Klumpp 1953) Eaton 1971 FT93
    |    `--A. multicornutum Eaton 1971 FT93
    |--Kleithriasphaeridium Davey 1974 [incl. Diversispina Benson 1976] FT93
    |    |--K. eoinodes (Eisenack 1958) Davey 1974 RC02
    |    |--‘Hystrichosphaeridium’ readei Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
    |    `--K. tubulosum (Cookson & Eisenack 1969) Stover & Evitt 1978 RC02
    `--Litosphaeridium Davey & Williams 1966 FT93
         |--L. arundum (Eisenack & Cookson 1960) Davey 1979 RC02
         |--L. conispinum Davey & Verdier 1973 RC02
         `--L. siphoniphorum (Cookson & Eisenack 1958) Davey & Williams 1966 RC02

Rigaudella aemula (Deflandre 1939) Below 1982 RC02 [=Adnatosphaeridium aemulum (Deflandre) Williams & Downie 1969 FT93]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i-viii, 1-351.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739-760.

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