Taiwan slug snake Pareas formosensis, from Snakes of Taiwan.

Belongs within: Macrostomata.
Contains: Thamnophis, Viperidae, Elapidae, Lamprophiinae, Natricinae, Xenodontinae, Colubrinae.

The Colubroidea are a large clade including nearly 2500 living snake species, including all venomous snakes. Members of the Colubroidea possess supralabial secretory serous cells in the mouth (Vidal & Hedges 2002) and lightly-built, elongate vertebrae with narrow centra (Rage et al. 2003). Living colubroids have traditionally been divided between the family Colubridae, whose members lack differentiated fangs in the front of the mouth, and the front-fanged families Atractaspididae, Viperidae and Elapidae; however, phylogenetic analyses indicate that the 'Colubridae' are paraphyletic relative to the other families.

    |  i. s.: Vectophis Rage & Ford 1980 RB03
    |           `--V. wardi Rage & Ford 1980 RB03
    |         Headonophis Holman 1993 RB03
    |           `--H. harrisoni Holman 1993 RB03
    |--Russellophiidae RB03
    |--Anomalophiidae RB03
    `--Colubridae RB03
         |  i. s.: Thamnophis VH02
         |         Dendrophidion dendrophis DS86
         |         Drymarchon corais DS86
         |         Drymobius rhombifer DS86
         |         Drymoluber dichrous DS86
         |         Leptophis DS86
         |           |--L. abaetulla DS86
         |           |    |--L. a. abaetulla DS86
         |           |    `--L. a. nigromarginatus DS86
         |           `--L. cupreus DS86
         |         Pseustes DS86
         |           |--P. poecilonotus DS86
         |           |    |--P. p. poecilonotus DS86
         |           |    `--P. p. polylepis DS86
         |           |--P. sexcarinatus DS86
         |           `--P. sulphureus DS86
         |         Spilotes pullatus DS86
         |         Xenopholis scalaris DS86
         |         Psomophis C07
         |         Coronella austriaca Laurenti 1768 BB03 [=Coluber austriacus K08]
         |         Texasophis Holman 1977 RB05
         |           |--T. bohemiacus RB05
         |           `--T. meini Rage & Holman 1984 RB05
         |         Dromicus H81
         |           |--D. cursor (Lacépède 1789) [=Leimadophis cursor] H81
         |           `--D. ornatus Garman 1887 [=Leimadophis ornatus] H81
         |         Phalotris JK08
         |           |--P. cuyanus (Cei 1984) JK08
         |           |--P. lemniscatus (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854) JK08
         |           |--P. matogrossensis Lema, D’Agostini & Cappellari 2005 JK08
         |           |--P. mertensi (Hoge 1955) JK08
         |           |--P. nasutus (Gomes 1915) JK08
         |           |--P. sansebastiani Jansen & Köhler 2008 JK08
         |           `--P. tricolor (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854) [incl. P. punctatus (Lema 1979)] JK08
         |         Elapomorphus JK08
         |           |--E. mertensi Hoge 1955 H55
         |           `--E. tricolor H55
         |         Dendrophis R13
         |           |--D. calligaster R13
         |           |--D. caudolineata M89
         |           `--D. picta M89
         |         Trimorphodon biscutatus N10
         |         Pituophis melanoleucus GWN71
         |         Apostolepis G11
         |         Lytorhynchus diadema [incl. L. kennedyi Schmidt 1939] A-O00
         |--Xenodermatinae VH02
         |    |--Xenodermus javanicus VH02
         |    `--+--Stoliczkaia borneensis VH02
         |       `--Achalinus VH02
         |            |--A. formosanus I92
         |            |    |--A. f. formosanus I92
         |            |    `--A. f. chigirai Ota & Toyama 1989 I92
         |            |--A. rufescens VH02
         |            `--A. werneri van Denburgh 1912 I92
         `--+--Pareatinae [Pareatini] VH02
            |    |--Aplopeltura boa VH02
            |    `--Pareas VH02
            |         |--P. carinatus VH02
            |         |--P. formosensis I92
            |         |--P. iwasakii (Maki 1937) I92
            |         |--P. komaii I92
            |         |--P. laevis [=Leptognathus laevis] C07
            |         `--P. nuchalis VH02
            `--+--Viperidae VH02
               `--+--+--Erpeton tentaculatum VH02
                  |  `--+--Enhydris VH02
                  |     |    |--*E. enhydris VH02
                  |     |    `--E. plumbea VH02
                  |     `--Homalopsidae M89
                  |          |--Homalopsis buccata VH02
                  |          `--Cerberus rhynchops M89, VH02
                  `--+--+--Elapidae VH02
                     |  `--Lamprophiinae VH02
                     `--+--+--Natricinae VH02
                        |  `--+--Pseudoxenodon karlschmidti VH02
                        |     `--Xenodontinae VH02
                        `--+--Grayia ornata VH02
                           `--+--Colubrinae VH02
                              `--Calamariinae VH02
                                   |--Oreocalamus hanitschi VH02
                                   `--Calamaria VH02
                                        |--C. babia S60
                                        |--C. favae de Filippi 1840 (n. d.) [=Atractus favae] S60
                                        |--C. pavimentata VH02
                                        |--C. pfefferi Stejneger 1901 I92
                                        `--C. stahlknechti M89

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A-O00] Al-Oran, R. M. 2000. Notable herpetological records from central and southern Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 31-36.

[BB03] Blain, H.-A., & S. Bailon. 2003. Les amphibiens et les reptiles des couches du Pléistocène supérieur ancien du gisement d'Artenac (Charente, France). Quaternaire 14 (1): 85-95.

[C07] Cadle, J. E. 2007. The snake genus Sibynomorphus (Colubridae: Dipsadinae: Dipsadini) in Peru and Ecuador, with comments on the systematics of Dipsadini. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 158 (5): 183-284.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R. & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[GWN71] Gorman, G. C., A. C. Wilson & M. Nakanishi. 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20 (2): 167-185.

[G11] Guadanucci, J. P. L. 2011. Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology 39 (2): 320-326.

[H55] Hoge, A. R. 1955. Eine neue Schlange der Gattung Elapomorphus aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (5-6): 301-304.

[H81] Honegger, R. E. 1981. List of amphibians and reptiles either known or thought to have become extinct since 1600. Biological Conservation 19: 141-158.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[JK08] Jansen, M., & G. Köhler. 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 103-110.

[K08] Korsós, Z. 2008. History of the Herpetological Collection of the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 37-93.

[M89] Modigliani, E. 1889. Materiali per la fauna erpetologica dell'isola Nias. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 113-124.

[N10] Naish, D. 2010. Tetrapod Zoology: Book One. CFZ Press: Bideford (UK).

[RB05] Rage, J.-C., & S. Bailon. 2005. Amphibians and squamate reptiles from the late early Miocene (MN 4) of Béon 1 (Montréal-du-Gers, southwestern France). Geodiversitas 27 (3): 413-441.

[RB03] Rage, J.-C., S. Bajpai, J. G. M. Thewissen & B. N. Tiwari. 2003. Early Eocene snakes from Kutch, western India, with a review of the Palaeophiidae. Geodiversitas 25 (4): 695-716.

[R13] Roux, J. 1913. Les reptiles de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et des îles Loyalty. In Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft II (F. Sarasin & J. Roux, eds) pp. 79-160. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[S60] Savage, J. M. 1960. A revision of the Ecuadorian snakes of the colubrid genus Atractus. Miscellaneous Publications Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 112: 1-86.

[VH02] Vidal, N., & S. B. Hedges. 2002. Higher-level relationships of caenophidian snakes inferred from four nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Comptes Rendus Biologies 325: 987-995.

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