Corsican red deer Cervus elaphus corsicanus, photographed by Iosto Doneddu.

Belongs within: Cervini.

The genus Cervus includes the red deer C. elaphus and related species. Males of this genus have well-developed branching, often rugose antlers associated with a harem breeding strategy. Phylogenetically, this group also includes the Père David's deer Elaphurus davidiensis, a species native to China though now extinct in the wild, which has distinctive backward-pointing tines on its antlers.

Cervus Linnaeus 1758 [incl. Elaphurus Milne-Edwards 1866] GRH06
    |--+--‘Elaphurus’ davidiensis HH06
    |  `--C. eldi HH06
    |       |--C. e. eldi BP87
    |       |--C. e. siamensis BP87
    |       `--C. e. thamin BP87
    `--+--C. elaphus Linnaeus 1758 HH06, H78
       |    |--C. e. elaphus H78
       |    |--C. e. bactrianus BP87
       |    |--C. e. barbarus H78
       |    |--C. e. corsicanus C84
       |    |--C. e. hanglu C84
       |    |--C. e. hippelaphus C84
       |    |--C. e. macneilli USDI77
       |    |--C. e. scoticus C84
       |    |--C. e. wallichi USDI77
       |    `--C. e. yarkandensis BP87
       `--+--+--C. porcinus HH06 [=Axis porcinus GRH06, Hyelaphus porcinus USDI77]
          |  |    |--C. p. porcinus USDI77
          |  |    `--‘Axis’ p. annamiticus [=Hyelaphus porcinus annamiticus] USDI77
          |  |--C. timorensis HH06
          |  |    |--C. t. timorensis BP87
          |  |    `--C. t. russa BP87
          |  `--C. unicolor GRH06
          |       |--C. u. unicolor TB01
          |       `--C. u. equinus TB01
          `--+--C. albirostris HH06
             `--+--C. canadensis Erxleben 1777 HH06, B75 [=C. elaphus canadensis B75]
                `--C. nippon Temminck 1838 HH06, M76
                     |--C. n. nippon LE05
                     |--C. n. grassianus BP87
                     |--C. n. keramae (Kuroda 1924) I92
                     |--C. n. kopschi BP87
                     |--C. n. mandarinus BP87
                     |--C. n. pseudaxis B91
                     |--C. n. taiouanus BP87
                     |--C. n. yakushimae Kuroda & Okada 1950 I92
                     `--C. n. yesoensis LE05

Cervus incertae sedis:
  C. alfredi BP87
  C. astylodon (Matsumoto 1924) AC98
  C. bezoarticus [incl. C. cuguapara Kerr 1792, Odocoeleus suacuapara (l. c.)] H48
  ‘Elaphurus’ bifurcatus DW04
  C. calamianensis BP87
  C. capreolus T66
  C. columbianus C66
  C. dorothensis Capasso Barbato 1992 [=C. (Leptocervus) dorothensis] AC98
  C. elegans [=Rusa elegans] DW04
  C. kuhli BP87 [=Hyelaphus kuhli USDI77]
  C. mariannus Desmarest 1820 F66
  C. philippinus F66
  C. pudu S66b
  C. pulchellus Imaizumi 1970 I92
  C. taevanus S66a

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AC98] Alcover, J. A., X. Campillo, M. Macias & A. Sans. 1998. Mammal species of the world: additional data on insular mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248: 1-29.

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1-184.

[B91] Bukva, V. 1991. Structural reduction and topological retrieval: problems in taxonomy of Demodicidae. In: Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 293-300. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[BP87] Burton, J. A., & B. Pearson. 1987. Collins Guide to the Rare Mammals of the World. Collins: London.

[C66] Canfield, C. A. 1866. On the habits of the prongbuck (Antilocapra americana), and the periodical shedding of its horns. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 105-110.

[C84] Cockerill, R. A. 1984. Deer. In All the World’s Animals: Hoofed Mammals (D. Macdonald, ed.) pp. 80-89. Torstar Books: New York.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8-14.

[F66] Fraser, L. 1866. Exhibition of a pair of horns of Cervus mariannus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 367-368.

[GRH06] Gilbert, C., A. Ropiquet & A. Hassanin. 2006. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies of Cervidae (Mammalia, Ruminantia): Systematics, morphology, and biogeography. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 101-117.

[H78] Hamilton, W. R. 1978. Cervidae and Palaeomerycidae. In Evolution of African Mammals (V. J. Maglio & H. B. S. Cooke, eds) pp. 496-508. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[H48] Hershkovitz, P. 1948. The technical name of the Virginia deer with a list of the South American forms. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 61: 41-45.

[HH06] Hughes, S., T. J. Hayden, C. J. Douady, C. Tougard, M. Germonpré, A. Stuart, L. Lbova, R. F. Carden, C. Hänni & L. Say. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct giant deer, Megaloceros giganteus. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40 (1): 285-291.

[I92] Iwahashi, J. (ed.) 1992. Reddo Deeta Animaruzu: a pictorial of Japanese fauna facing extinction. JICC: Tokyo.

[LE05] Lister, A. M., C. J. Edwards, D. A. W. Nock, M. Bunce, I. A. van Pijlen, D. G. Bradley, M. G. Thomas & I. Barnes. 2005. The phylogenetic position of the ‘giant deer’ Megaloceros giganteus. Nature 438: 850-853.

[M76] Masui, M. 1976. Nihon no Doobutsu. Kogakukan: Tokyo.

[S66a] Sclater, P. L. 1866a. Notice of some recent additions to the Society’s menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 80.

[S66b] Sclater, P. L. 1866b. Notice of a pudu deer recently added to the Society’s menagerie. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 104-105.

[TB01] Timm, R. M., & J. H. Brandt. 2001. Pseudonovibos spiralis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae): New information on this enigmatic south-east Asian ox. Journal of Zoology 253: 157-166.

[T66] Tristram, H. B. 1866. Report on the mammals of Palestine. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 84-93.

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420-36431.

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