Ponerinae

Platythyrea cribrinodis, copyright Benjamin Kalyatta.


Belongs within: Formicidae.
Contains: Ponera, Leptogenys, Pachycondyla, Anochetus, Odontomachus, Hypoponera.

The Ponerinae are a group of stinging ants in which the antennal toruli (sockets) have become fused to the frontal lobe. The outer margins of the frontal lobe are convergent posteriad in genera other than Platythyrea; Platythyrea also differs from other ponerines in having a broad clypeal insertion and pectinate meso- and metatibial spurs (this last character being present in a small number of Leptogenys and Pachycondyla species), and so is placed in a separate tribe from the others (Heterick 2009). Past authors have recognised the 'Ponerinae' as encompassing a broad range of unspecialised ants, but the Ponerinae in this sense is now recognised as polyphyletic, and various genera have been removed to subfamilies such as Ectatomminae, Heteroponerinae and Amblyoponinae.

Characters (from Heterick 2009): Torulus of antenna completely fused to frontal lobe; frontal lobes rounded or triangular, with a decidedly 'pinched-in' appearance posteriorly in full-face view; anterior clypeal margin without lamellate rim; head capsule without median longitudinal carina; promesonotal suture fully developed, so pronotum and mesonotum capable of independent movement; apex of abdomen with a sting.

<==Ponerinae
    |--Platythyrea Roger 1863 FT08 [Platythyreini H09]
    |    |--*P. punctata B03
    |    |--P. brunnipes H09
    |    |--P. cribrinodis A61
    |    |--P. dentinodis H09
    |    |--P. fricuspidata N-ZLI11
    |    |--P. micans H09
    |    |--P. mocquerysi BS06
    |    |--P. parallela (Smith 1859) FT08
    |    |--P. sagei Forel 1900 B03
    |    |--P. turneri H09
    |    |--P. victoriae Forel 1900 B03
    |    `--P. wroughtoni Forel 1900 B03
    `--Ponerini H09
         |  i. s.: Ponera H09
         |         Myopias Roger 1861 B03
         |           |--*M. amblyops Roger 1861 B03
         |           `--M. tasmaniensis H09
         |         Cryptopone Emery 1893 B03
         |           |--*C. testacea Emery 1893 T99 [=Amblypone testacea B03]
         |           |--C. gilva [=Euponera gilva] WW90
         |           |--C. sauteri T99
         |           `--C. tengu Terayama 1999 T99
         |--+--Leptogenys BS06
         |  `--+--Pachycondyla BS06
         |     `--+--Anochetus BS06
         |        `--+--Odontomachus BS06
         |           `--Odontoponera Mayr 1862 BS06, B03
         |                |--*O. transversa (Smith 1857) [=Ponera transversa] B03
         |                `--O. denticulata E89
         `--+--+--Simopelta pergandei BS06
            |  `--Thaumatomyrmex atrox BS06
            `--+--+--Centromyrmex Mayr 1866 [incl. Spalacomyrmex Emery 1889] B03
               |  |    |--*C. bohemanni B03
               |  |    |--C. feae (Emery 1889) B03 [=*Spalacomyrmex feae E89, B03; incl. C. feae var. ceylonicus B03]
               |  |    `--C. sellaris BS06
               |  `--+--Psalidomyrmex procerus BS06
               |     `--+--Loboponera politula BS06
               |        `--Plectroctena ugandensis BS06
               `--Hypoponera BS06

Ponerinae incertae sedis:
  Megaponera foetens H79
  Euponera E14
    |--E. ochracea E14
    `--E. sauteri E14
  Prionogenys rouxi Emery 1914 E14
  Sysphincta WW90
  Diacamma Mayr 1862 B03
    |--*D. rugosum [=Ponera rugosa; incl. D. rugosum var. rothneyi, D. versicolor] B03
    |--D. assamense Forel 1900 B03
    |--D. ceylonense Emery 1897 B03
    |--D. cyaneiventre André 1887 [=D. rugosum race cyaniventre] B03
    |--D. geometricum B03
    |--D. longitudinale Emery 1889 E89
    |--D. scalptratum (Smith 1858) [=Ponera scalptrata] B03
    |--D. sculptum (Jerdon 1851) [=Ponera sculpta] B03
    `--D. vagans (Smith 1861) [=Ponera vagans; incl. D. vagans var. burmanum] B03
  Ooceraea Roger 1862 B03
    `--*O. fragosa Roger 1862 B03
  Myopopone Roger 1861 B03
    |--M. castanea (Smith 1860) (see below for synonymy) B03
    `--M. moelleri Bingham 1903 B03
  Stigmatomma Roger 1859 B03
    |--*S. denticulatum B03
    |--S. belli (Forel 1900) [=Amblyopone belli] B03
    |--S. feae Emery 1894 [=Amblyopone feae] B03
    `--S. rothneyi (Forel 1900) [=Amblyopone rothneyi] B03
  Drepanognathus Smith 1858 B03
    |--*D. saltator (Jerdon 1851) (see below for synonymy) B03
    `--D. venator Smith 1858 [=Harpegnathus venator] B03
  Syscia Roger 1861 B03
    `--*S. typhla Roger 1861 B03
  Pseudoponera Emery 1901 B03
    |--*P. amblyops (Emery 1887) B03 (see below for synonymy)
    `--P. darwini (Forel 1893) [=Belonopelta darwini] B03

*Drepanognathus saltator (Jerdon 1851) [=Harpegnathus saltator; incl. D. cruentatus Smith 1858, H. cruentatus] B03

Myopopone castanea (Smith 1860) [=Amblyopone castanea; incl. *M. maculata Roger 1861, M. rufula Roger 1861] B03

*Pseudoponera amblyops (Emery 1887) B03 [=Ponera amblyops B03, Belonopelta amblyops B03, Pachycondyla (Pseudoponera) amblyops B03, Trapeziopelta amblyops E89]

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Andreae, H. 1961. Coleoptera: Cossyphodidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 198–216. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[B03] Bingham, C. T. 1903. The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Hymenoptera. Vol. II. Ants and Cuckoo-Wasps. Taylor and Francis: London.

[BS06] Brady, S. G., T. R. Schultz, B. L. Fisher & P. S. Ward. 2006. Evaluating alternative hypotheses for the early evolution and diversification of ants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 103 (48): 18172–18177.

[E89] Emery, C. 1889. Viaggio di Leonardo Fea in Birmania e regioni vicine. XX.—Formiche di Birmania e del Tenasserim raccolte da Leonardo Fea (1885–87). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a 7: 485–520.

[E14] Emery, C. 1914. Les fourmis de la Nouvelle-Calédonie & des îles Loyalty. In: Sarasin, F. & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1, Heft IV pp. 393–436, pl. 12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[FT08] Framenau, V. W., & M. L. Thomas. 2008. Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Christmas Island (Indian Ocean): identification and distribution. Records of the Western Australian Museum 25 (1): 45–85.

[H09] Heterick, B. E. 2009. A guide to the ants of south-western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 76: 1–206.

[H79] Howse, P. E. 1979. The uniqueness of insect societies: Aspects of defense and integration. In: Larwood, G. & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 345–374. Academic Press: London.

[N-ZLI11] Nur-Zati A. M., G. T. Lim & A. B. Idris. 2011. Checklist of ants of selected hill dipterocarp forests of peninsular Malaysia. Serangga 16 (1): 91–105.

[T99] Terayama, M. 1999. Taxonomic studies of the Japanese Formicidae, part 4. Three new species of Ponerinae. Memoirs of the Myrmecological Society of Japan 1: 7–15.

[WW90] Wheeler, G. C., & J. Wheeler. 1990. Insecta: Hymenoptera Formicidae. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1277–1294. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

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