Hylaeus (Rhodohylaeus) proximus, from PaDIL.

Belongs within: Apoidea.
Contains: Andrenidae, Melittidae, Megachilidae, Apidae, Halictinae.

The Apiformes, bees, are a diverse and well-marked clade of herbivorous wasps, characterised primarily by the presence of at least some plumose hairs on the body (though these may be few in some groups). Bees have been divided between long-tongued (Megachilidae and Apidae, with the first two segments of the labial palpus elongate and flattened) and short-tongued groups (the remaining families, with the palpus segments cylindrical and not strongly differentiated); however, phylogenetic studies indicate that the long-tongued clade is nested within the short-tongued paraphylum. The earliest definite evidence for bees in the fossil record comes from the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) (Engel 2001).

Characters (from Engel 2001): Some setae branched or plumose; subantennal sutures internally connected to fan-shaped sheet of tentorium; labrum thickened basally and attached at clypeal margin; proboscidial fossa opened onto posterior surface of head capsule; cardo not broadened apically, approximately parallel-sided; suspensorium of paraglossa with sparse setae or bristles; mesotibial comb present; dorsoventral length of mesocoxa about equal to distance from summit of mesocoxa to hind wing base; metabasitarsus broader than following tarsal segments, without concavity or strigil; cu-a of hind wing shorter than second abscissa of M+Cu; T7 of female divided into two hemitergites.

Apiformes [Andrenetae, Anthophila, Melissomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Bombusoides Motschulsky 1856 E01
    |           `--*B. mengei Motschulsky 1856 (n. d.) E01
    |         Nogueirapis silacea E01
    |         Trigonisca E01
    |         Lamprocolletes fulvescens T27
    |         Amphylaeus morosus B88
    |         Neoceratina australiensis B88
    |         Crocisa lamprosoma R55
    |--+--+--Andrenidae E01
    |  |  `--+--Paleomelitta Engel 2001 [Paleomelittidae] E01
    |  |     |    `--*P. nigripennis Engel 2001 E01
    |  |     `--+--Melittidae E01
    |  |        `--+--Megachilidae E01
    |  |           `--Apidae E01
    |  `--Halictidae E01
    |       |  i. s.: Acunomia OC01
    |       |         Homalictus G84
    |       |           |--H. dotatus YHT05
    |       |           `--H. raymenti G84
    |       |         Noma flavoviridis YHT05
    |       |--Rophitinae E01
    |       |    |  i. s.: Xeralictus E01
    |       |    |--Rophitini E01
    |       |    `--Penapini E01
    |       |         |--Penapis E01
    |       |         |--Ceblurgus E01
    |       |         `--Goeletapis E01
    |       `--+--Halictinae E01
    |          `--Nomiinae E01
    |               |--Lipotriches moerens [=Austronomia moerens] ZS10
    |               |--Mellitidia tomentifera ZS10
    |               `--Nomia E12
    |                    |--N. albocincta Lucas 1848 E12
    |                    |--N. flavilabris Lucas 1848 E12
    |                    |--N. melanderi WP99
    |                    `--N. perforata Lucas 1848 E12
    `--Colletidae E01
         |  i. s.: Euryglossina (Euryglossina) perpusilla YHT05
         |         Leioproctus YHT05
         |         Pachyprosopsis (Pachyprosopula) purnongensis YHT05
         |--Stenotritinae [Stenotritidae] E01
         |    |--Stenotritus E01
         |    `--Ctenocolletes E01
         |--Diphaglossinae E01
         |    |--Caupolicanini E01
         |    `--+--Diphaglossini E01
         |       `--Dissoglottini E01
         |--Colletinae E01
         |    |  i. s.: Scrapter E01
         |    |         Callomelitta E01
         |    |--Colletes Latreille 1802 L02 [Colletini E01]
         |    |    `--*C. succinta [=Apis succinta; incl. Hylaeus glutinosus] L02
         |    `--Paracolletini [Paracolletinae] E01
         |         |--Lysicolletes R55
         |         `--Paracolletes R55
         |              |--P. elegans R55
         |              |--P. paradoxus R55
         |              |--P. pictus R55
         |              `--P. tuberculatus R55
         `--+--Euryglossinae ZS10
            |    |--Euryglossa ephippiata ZS10
            |    `--Euhesma E08
            |         |--E. striata Exley 2002 [=E. sulcata Exley 2002 non Euryglossa sulcata Exley 1998] E08
            |         `--E. sulcata (Exley 1998) [=Euryglossa (Euhesma) sulcata] E08
            `--+--Chilicola [Xeromelissinae] E01
               |    |--C. electrodominica E01
               |    `--C. gracilis E01
               `--Hylaeinae [Hylaeidae] E01
                    |--Hylioides concinna H02
                    |--Euryglossimorpha R55
                    `--Hylaeus YHT05
                         |  i. s.: H. alcyoneus ZS10
                         |         H. annulatus L02
                         |         H. chrysognathus R55
                         |--H. (Euprosopis) violaceus YHT05
                         |--H. (Prosopisteron) quadratus YHT05
                         `--H. (Rhodohylaeus) YHT05
                              |--H. (R.) proximus YHT05
                              `--H. (R.) rufipes YHT05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[E08] Exley, E. M. 2008. A replacement name for the bee Euhesma sulcata Exley (Hymenoptera: Colletidae: Euryglossinae). Records of the Western Australian Museum 24 (2): 215.

[G84] Gauld, I. D. 1984. An Introduction to the Ichneumonidae of Australia. British Museum (Natural History).

[H02] Harris, A. 2002. Recent range extensions of some introduced Hymenoptera, with observations. Weta 24: 20-21.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[OC01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R55] Rayment, T. 1955. Taxonomy, morphology and biology of sericophorine wasps with diagnoses of two new genera and descriptions of forty new species and six sub-species. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 19: 1-95.

[T27] Thomson, G. M. 1927. The pollination of New Zealand flowers by birds and insects. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 106-125.

[WP99] Walter, D. E. & H. C. Proctor. 1999. Mites: Ecology, Evolution and Behaviour. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147-153.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P. & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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