Reduviidae

Coranus contrarius, copyright Boris Loboda.


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.
Contains: Ploeariodes.

The Reduviidae, assassin bugs, are a diverse group of predatory bugs, generally with a robust beak that is usually permanently curved and held well-separated from the head. Most reduviids are fairly robust bugs, but members of the subfamilies Emesinae and Ploeariinae are slender, long-legged forms with raptorial forelegs. The largest subfamily is the Harpactorinae, members of which are usually diurnal and associated with plants; they are characterised by a long 'neck' and a transverse sulcus across the head between the eyes and ocelli (Carver et al. 1991).

<==Reduviidae
    |--Ectrichodiinae CGW91
    |--Physoderinae CGW91
    |--Visayanocorinae CGW91
    |--Opisthoplatys [Tribelocephalinae] G75
    |    `--O. australasiae G75
    |--Tegea [Tegeinae] CGW91
    |    `--T. atropicta CGW91
    |--Saicinae CGW91
    |    |--Polytoxus jourdani (Montr. 1864) [=Leptomera jourdani] D14
    |    `--Micropolytoxus CGW91
    |--Phymata M73 [Phymatidae, Phymatinae GE05]
    |    |--P. americana M73
    |    `--P. crassipes [=Acanthia crassipes] L02
    |--Holoptilinae CGW91
    |    |--Aradellus distinctus G75
    |    |--Ptilocnemus femoralis G75
    |    |--Ptilocerus ochraceus CGW91, GE05
    |    `--Aradelloides CGW91
    |--Reduviinae [Acanthaspidinae] G75
    |    |--Horcinia gigas G75
    |    `--Reduvius G89
    |         |--R. personatus CM07
    |         `--R. tabidus G89
    |--Triatoma A71 [Triatominae CGW91
    |    |--T. dimidiata A71
    |    |--T. infestans A71
    |    |--T. leopoldi CGW91
    |    |--T. rubrofasciatum (De Geer 1783) [=Cimex rubrofasciatus] G76
    |    |--T. sanguisuga A71
    |    `--T. sordida L81
    |--Peiratinae MC13
    |    |--Ectomocoris G75
    |    |    |--E. decoratus C91
    |    |    |--E. ornatus C91
    |    |    `--E. truculentus G75
    |    `--Pirates G75
    |         |--P. crassifemur G75
    |         |--P. rufipennis Lucas 1847 E12
    |         `--P. sepulchralis G75
    |--Stenopodainae CGW91
    |    |--Sastrapada armata Montr. 1864 D14
    |    |--Pygolampis foeda Stal 1874 CGW91, K08
    |    |--Thodelmus CGW91
    |    |--Centrogonus CGW91
    |    `--Oncocephalus D14
    |         |--O. angulatus K08
    |         |--O. confusus CGW91
    |         |--O. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |         `--O. velutinus (Montr. 1864) [=Sastrapoda velutina] D14
    |--Emesinae [Ploeariinae] D14
    |    |--Emesa barbara Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--Pseudobargylia MC13
    |    |--Putoni B27
    |    |--Bargylia CGW91
    |    |--Empicoris rubromaculatus CGW91
    |    |--Ploeariodes B27
    |    |--Phantasmatophanes Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    |    `--*P. muiri Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    |--Stenolemus G75
    |    |    |--S. bituberus G75
    |    |    `--S. edwardsi G75
    |    |--Gardena D14
    |    |    |--G. bicolor K08
    |    |    |--G. canalana Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--G. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--Ploiaria CGW91
    |         |--P. abrupta B27
    |         |--P. antipodum Bergroth 1927 B27
    |         |--P. huttoni B27
    |         |--P. regina CGW91
    |         |--P. tipularia (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Cimex tipularius L02]
    |         `--P. vagabunda [=Gerris vagabunda] L02
    `--Harpactorinae GE05
         |--Orgetorixa saeva G75
         |--Austrarcesius bicolor G75
         |--Endochus cinctipes G75
         |--Leana australis G75
         |--Helonotus CGW91
         |--Gminatus nigroscutellatus CGW91
         |--Havinthus rufovarius CGW91
         |--Dicrotelus CGW91
         |--Veledella WEE70
         |--Catasphactes WEE70
         |--Euagoras bispinosus WEE70
         |--Austrocoranus mundus WEE70
         |--Pristhesancus MC13
         |    |--P. papuensis M70
         |    `--P. plagipennis LNM91
         |--Harpactor H01
         |    |--H. affinis Lucas 1847 E12
         |    `--H. annulatus H01
         |--Dicranucoris WEE70
         |    |--D. canberrae WEE70
         |    `--D. tasmaniae WEE70
         `--Coranus MC13
              |--C. aridellus MC13
              |--C. contrarius H01
              |--C. granosus MC13
              `--C. hammarstroemii H01

Reduviidae incertae sedis:
  Panstrongylus megistus [=Triatoma megistus] A71
  Agriosphodrus YS01
  Zelurus travassoi CM07
  Rhodnius GE05
    |--R. pallescens A71
    `--R. prolixus A71
  Apiomerus falviventris I92
  Rhinocoris CGW91
  Gonteosphodrus bicolor R78
  Polididus armatissimus K08
  Tunes saucius Stal 1866 K08
  Alloeocranum biannulipes K08
  Luteva K08
    |--L. circe Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    `--L. concolor K08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671–684.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 Heft 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LNM91] Lawrence, J. F., E. S. Nielsen & I. M. Mackerras. 1991. Skeletal anatomy and key to orders. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 3–32. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M70] Mackerras, I. M. 1970. Skeletal anatomy. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 3–28. Melbourne University Press.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[M73] Mason, L. G. 1973. The habitat and phenetic variation in Phymata americana Melin (Heteroptera). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 271–279.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 10 October 2017.

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