Reduviidae

Coranus contrarius, copyright Boris Loboda.


Belongs within: Cimicomorpha.
Contains: Tribelocephalini, Ploeariodes.

The Reduviidae, assassin bugs, are a diverse group of predatory bugs, generally with a robust beak that is usually permanently curved and held well-separated from the head. They mostly attack other insects except for the Triatominae which feed on the blood of mammals and birds. Most reduviids are fairly robust bugs, but members of the subfamilies Emesinae and Ploeariinae are slender, long-legged forms with raptorial forelegs. The largest subfamily is the Harpactorinae, members of which are usually diurnal and associated with plants; they are characterised by a long 'neck' and a transverse sulcus across the head between the eyes and ocelli (Carver et al. 1991). The Phymatinae, sometimes treated as a separate family, are tropical bugs with four-segmented antennae, the terminal segment being the largest and clavate or fusiform in shape, and two-segmented mid- and hind tarsi (Richards & Davies 1977).

<==Reduviidae
    |--Physoderinae CGW91
    |--Visayanocorinae CGW91
    |--Daraxa [Ectrichodiinae] MC96b
    |    `--D. (Daraxa) crena Maldonado Capriles 1996 MC96b
    |--Tegea [Tegeinae] CGW91
    |    `--T. atropicta CGW91
    |--Salyavata [Salyavatinae] MC96b
    |    `--S. cornuta MC96b
    |--Saicinae CGW91
    |    |--Polytoxus jourdani (Montr. 1864) [=Leptomera jourdani] D14
    |    `--Micropolytoxus CGW91
    |--Homalocoris [Hammacerinae] MC96b
    |    |--H. binotatus MC96b
    |    |--H. maculicollis MC96b
    |    `--H. nermini Maldonado Capriles 1996 MC96b
    |--Holoptilinae CGW91
    |    |--Aradellus distinctus G75
    |    |--Ptilocnemus femoralis G75
    |    |--Ptilocerus ochraceus CGW91, GE05
    |    `--Aradelloides CGW91
    |--Phymatinae [Phymatidae] GE05
    |    |--Carcinocoris castetsi RD77, R13
    |    `--Phymata M73
    |         |--P. americana M73
    |         |--P. crassipes [=Acanthia crassipes] L02
    |         |--P. erosa G20
    |         `--P. pennsylvanica RD77
    |--Reduviinae [Acanthaspidinae] G75
    |    |--Horcinia gigas G75
    |    |--Acanthaspis RD77
    |    `--Reduvius G89
    |         |--R. dorycus Boisduval 1835 B35
    |         |--R. personatus CM07
    |         |--R. tabidus G89
    |         `--R. tuberculatus B35
    |--Stenopodainae CGW91
    |    |--Sastrapada armata Montr. 1864 D14
    |    |--Pygolampis foeda Stal 1874 CGW91, K08
    |    |--Thodelmus CGW91
    |    |--Centrogonus CGW91
    |    `--Oncocephalus D14
    |         |--O. angulatus K08
    |         |--O. confusus CGW91
    |         |--O. pacificus Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |         `--O. velutinus (Montr. 1864) [=Sastrapoda velutina] D14
    |--Tribelocephalinae MC96a
    |    |--Tribelocephalini MC96a
    |    |--Xenocaucus China & Usinger 1949 [Xenocaucini] MC96a
    |    |    `--X. mancini China & Usinger 1949 MC96a
    |    `--Opistoplatyini MC96a
    |         |--Centrogastrocoris Miller 1958 [=Centrogastocoris] MC96a
    |         |--Opistoplatys Westwood 1834 [incl. Decius Stål 1859, Pangeranga Distant 1906] MC96a
    |         |    `--O. australasiae G75
    |         |--Distantus Villiers 1943 MC96a
    |         |    `--D. oculatus MC96a
    |         `--Plectophorocoris Miller 1958 MC96a
    |              `--P. gracilis MC96a
    |--Peiratinae MC13
    |    |--Rasahus albomaculatus MC96
    |    |--Ectomocoris G75
    |    |    |--E. decoratus C91
    |    |    |--E. ornatus C91
    |    |    `--E. truculentus G75
    |    `--Peirates Serville 1831 [incl. Spilodermus Stål 1868] C96
    |         |  i. s.: P. crassifemur G75
    |         |         P. rufipennis Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |         P. sepulchralis G75
    |         |--*P. stridulus [=Reduvius stridulus] C96
    |         |--P. collarti C96
    |         |--P. lepturoides C96
    |         `--P. quadrinotatus group C96
    |              |--P. argenteopilosus Schouteden 1931 [=Pirates (Spilodermus) argenteopilosus] C96
    |              `--P. quadrinotatus (Fabricius 1796) (see below for synonymy) C96
    |--Triatominae CGW91
    |    |--Cavernicola Barber 1937 B37a
    |    |    `--*C. pilosa Barber 1937 B37a
    |    |--Paratriatoma Barber 1938 B38
    |    |    `--*P. hirsuta Barber 1938 B38
    |    |--Rhodnius RD77
    |    |    |--R. pallescens A71
    |    |    `--R. prolixus A71
    |    `--Triatoma G75
    |         |--T. dimidiata A71
    |         |--T. gerstaeckeri B37b
    |         |--T. infestans A71
    |         |--T. leopoldi CGW91
    |         |--T. longipes Barber 1937 B37b
    |         |--T. rubrofasciatum (De Geer 1783) [=Cimex rubrofasciatus] G76
    |         |--T. sanguisuga A71
    |         `--T. sordida L81
    |--Emesinae [Ploeariinae] D14
    |    |--Emesa barbara Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--Pseudobargylia MC13
    |    |--Putoni B27
    |    |--Bargylia CGW91
    |    |--Ploeariodes B27
    |    |--Phantasmatophanes Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    |    `--*P. muiri Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    |--Empicoris CGW91
    |    |    |--E. armatus M57
    |    |    `--E. rubromaculatus CGW91
    |    |--Stenolemus G75
    |    |    |--S. bituberus G75
    |    |    `--S. edwardsi G75
    |    |--Gardena D14
    |    |    |--G. bicolor K08
    |    |    |--G. canalana Distant 1914 D14
    |    |    `--G. pacifica Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    |    `--Ploiaria CGW91
    |         |--P. abrupta B27
    |         |--P. antipodum Bergroth 1927 B27
    |         |--P. huttoni B27
    |         |--P. regina CGW91
    |         |--P. tipularia (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Cimex tipularius L02]
    |         `--P. vagabunda [=Gerris vagabunda] L02
    `--Harpactorinae GE05
         |--Orgetorixa saeva G75
         |--Austrarcesius bicolor G75
         |--Leana australis G75
         |--Helonotus CGW91
         |--Gminatus nigroscutellatus CGW91
         |--Havinthus rufovarius CGW91
         |--Dicrotelus CGW91
         |--Veledella WEE70
         |--Catasphactes WEE70
         |--Euagoras bispinosus WEE70
         |--Austrocoranus mundus WEE70
         |--Endochus G75
         |    |--E. cengalensis R13
         |    `--E. cinctipes G75
         |--Pristhesancus MC13
         |    |--P. papuensis M70
         |    `--P. plagipennis LNM91
         |--Dicranucoris WEE70
         |    |--D. canberrae WEE70
         |    `--D. tasmaniae WEE70
         |--Harpactor H01
         |    |--H. affinis Lucas 1847 E12
         |    |--H. annulatus H01
         |    `--H. costalis RD77
         `--Coranus MC13
              |--C. aridellus MC13
              |--C. contrarius H01
              |--C. granosus MC13
              |--C. hammarstroemii H01
              `--C. subapterus RD77

Reduviidae incertae sedis:
  Panstrongylus megistus [=Triatoma megistus] A71
  Agriosphodrus YS01
  Zelurus travassoi CM07
  Apiomerus falviventris I92
  Rhinocoris iracundus CGW91, R13
  Gonteosphodrus bicolor R78
  Polididus armatissimus K08
  Tunes saucius Stal 1866 K08
  Alloeocranum biannulipes K08
  Luteva K08
    |--L. circe Kirkaldy 1908 K08
    `--L. concolor K08
  Liaoxia longa Hong 1987 RJ93
  Sirthenea LK96
    |--S. dimidiata Horváth 1911 LK96
    |--S. flavipes (Stål 1855) [incl. S. flavipes f. apicalis] LK96
    |--S. koreana Lee & Kerzhner 1996 LK96
    `--S. melanota Cai & Lu 1990 LK96
  Edocla RD77
  Paredocla RD77
  Rhaphidosoma RD77
  Arilus cristatus RD77

Peirates quadrinotatus (Fabricius 1796) [=Reduvius quadrinotatus, Pirates (*Spilodermus) quadrinotatus; incl. Pi. arcuatus Stål 1870, Pi. (Spilodermus) arcuatus, Peirates biguttatus Dohrn 1860, Pi. patricius Miller 1948, Pe. patricius, Pi. picturatus Miller 1948, Pe. picturatus] C96

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[B37a] Barber, H. G. 1937a. A new bat-cave bug from Panama (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Reduviidae0. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (3): 60–63.

[B37b] Barber, H. G. 1937b. A new species of Triatoma from Arizona (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 39 (4): 86–87.

[B38] Barber, H. G. 1938. A new genus and species of the subfamily Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 40 (4): 104–105.

[B27] Bergroth, E. 1927. Hemiptera Heteroptera from New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 671–684.

[B35] Boisduval, J. B. 1835. Voyage de Découvertes de l’Astrolabe. Exécuté par ordre du Roi, pendant les années 1826–1827–1828–1829, sous le commandement de M. J. Dumont d'Urville. Faune entomologique de l'océan Pacifique, avec l'illustration des insectes nouveaux recueillis pendant le voyage vol. 2. Coléoptères et autres ordres. J. Tastu: Paris.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[CM07] Cokendolpher, J. C., & P. G. Mitov. 2007. Natural enemies. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 339–373. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[C96] Coscarón, M. del C. 1996. Synonymizing Spilodermus Stål under Peirates Serville, and revision of the resulting P. quadrinotatus species group (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 500–508.

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[D14] Distant, W. L. 1914. Rhynchota from New Caledonia and the surrounding islands. In: Sarasin, F., & J. Roux (eds) Nova Caledonia: Forschungen in Neu-Caledonian und auf den Loyalty-Inseln. A. Zoologie vol. 1 pt 4 pp. 369–390, pls 11–12. C. W. Kreidels Verlag: Wiesbaden.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[G75] Gross, G. F. 1975. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part I. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[G76] Gross, G. F. 1976. Plant-feeding and Other Bugs (Hemiptera) of South Australia. Heteroptera—Part II. Handbook of the Flora and Fauna of South Australia.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[LNM91] Lawrence, J. F., E. S. Nielsen & I. M. Mackerras. 1991. Skeletal anatomy and key to orders. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 3–32. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LK96] Lee, C. E., & I. M. Kerzhner. 1996. A new species of Sirthenea Spinola (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) from Korea. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 407–411.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[L81] Long, J. L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Reed: Sydney.

[M70] Mackerras, I. M. 1970. Skeletal anatomy. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 3–28. Melbourne University Press.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MC96a] Maldonado Capriles, J. 1996a. New taxa and key to the tribes and genera in Tribelocephalinae Stål 1866 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 138–144.

[MC96b] Maldonado Capriles, J. 1996b. Reduviidae (Heteroptera) collected by fogging the forest canopy in Peru. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (2): 233–236.

[M73] Mason, L. G. 1973. The habitat and phenetic variation in Phymata americana Melin (Heteroptera). Systematic Zoology 22 (3): 271–279.

[M57] Mockford, E. L. 1957. Life history studies on some Florida insects of the genus Archipsocus (Psocoptera). Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 1 (5): 253–274.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

[R78] Richards, O. W. 1978. The Australian social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, Supplementary Series 61: 1–132.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 21 July 2020.

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