Kuwayama medicaginis, copyright Salvador Vitanza.

Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Trioza, Chermes, Psyllinae, Spondyliaspinae, Ciriacreminae, Aphalarinae.

The Psylloidea, jumping plantlice or lerp insects, are a group of small plant-sucking bugs, some of which are notable agricultural pests. Nymphs commonly inhabit protective structures, such as leaf galls induced in host plants or wax secretions produced from the abdomen. Psylloids first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic, where they are represented by the Mesozoic families Liadopsyllidae and Malmopsyllidae (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). Modern families include the Triozidae, characterised by fore wings with veins R, M and CuA arising at or near a single point (Carver et al. 1991).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult small. Genal processes commonly developed. Antennae 10-segmented. Three ocelli. Stylets lodged in internal crumena. Hind legs saltatorial; coxae large, fixed; trochanters condylated; saltatorial spines at apices of tibia and first tarsal segment. R, M and Cu of fore wing each usually single branched; peripheral vein present; clavus present. Proctiger well developed; circumanal wax gland ring(s) usually present in female. Sexes similar. Reproduction bisexual. Nymphs non-saltatorial; dorsoventrally flattened; head and prothorax fused. Stylets at rest looped externally at base of labium. Fore wing pad often produced anteriorly as a humeral lobe. Tibia and tarsus fused in instars I-IV; tarsus one-segmented in final instar (V); well-developed arolium usually present. Wax production common, secreted mostly from base of lanceolate setae or sectasetae on abdomen. Eggs pedunculate, with either peduncle inserted into plant tissue or entire egg embedded in plant.

<==Psylloidea [Saltipedes]
    |--Liadopsylla K-P91 [Asientomidae, Liadopsyllidae SP02, Lithentomidae]
    |    `--L. geinitzi RJ93
    |--Phacopteronidae YM96
    |    |--Pseudophacopteron CGW91
    |    `--Epicarsa corniculata YM96
    |--Malmopsyllidae [Neopsylloididae] SP02
    |    |--Malmopsylla karatavica Bekker-Migdisova 1985 RJ93
    |    `--Neopsylloides turutanovae Bekker-Migdisova 1985 RJ93
    |--Calophyidae CGW91
    |    |--Calophya dicksoni YM96
    |    `--Cecidopsylla CGW91
    |         |--C. paterae CGW91
    |         `--C. putealis CGW91
    |--Homotomidae YM96
    |    |--Mycopsylla CGW91
    |    |    |--M. fici CGW91
    |    |    `--M. proxima CGW91
    |    `--Synoza YM96
    |         |--S. floccosa YM96
    |         `--S. pulchra YM96
    |--Carsidaridae [Carsidarinae] YM96
    |    |--Carsidara H-H61
    |    |--Mastigimas YM96
    |    |    |--M. ernestii YM96
    |    |    `--M. schwarzi YM96
    |    `--Paracarsidara YM96
    |         |--P. dugesii YM96
    |         |--P. gigantea YM96
    |         `--P. mexicana YM96
    |--Triozidae [Triozinae] YM96
    |    |--Hemitrioza H-H61
    |    |--Schedotrioza CGW91
    |    |--Aacanthocnema casuarinae CGW91
    |    |--Leptynoptera sulfurea CGW91
    |    |--Trioza H-H61
    |    |--Trichochermes magna YM96
    |    |--Ceropsylla H-H61
    |    |    |--C. discrepans YM96
    |    |    |--C. pulchra YM96
    |    |    `--C. sideroxyli YM96
    |    |--Leuronota YM96
    |    |    |--L. inusitata YM96
    |    |    |--L. maculata YM96
    |    |    `--L. michoacana YM96
    |    |--Paratrioza YM96
    |    |    |--P. cockerelli YM96
    |    |    |--P. dubia YM96
    |    |    `--P. plummeri YM96
    |    `--Kuwayama YM96
    |         |--K. elongagena YM96
    |         |--K. hyalina YM96
    |         |--K. lateralis YM96
    |         |--K. medicaginis YM96
    |         |--K. mexicana YM96
    |         |--K. oaxacensis YM96
    |         `--K. striata YM96
    `--Psyllidae [Chermidae] RD77
         |  i. s.: Petalolyma bicolor YS01
         |         Euphyllura H-H61
         |         Aphalaroida BM76
         |           |--A. inermis YM96
         |           |--A. lysilomae YM96
         |           |--A. pithecolobia YM96
         |           `--A. rauca YM96
         |         Bactericera rossica Horváth 1901 H01
         |         Cometopsylla WEE70
         |         Creiis WEE70
         |           |--C. costatus CGW91
         |           `--C. periculosa CGW91
         |         Ameroscena mexicana YM96
         |         Burkhardtia montana YM96
         |         Cacopsylla YM96
         |           |--C. americana YM96
         |           `--C. nana YM96
         |         Caradocia delongi YM96
         |         Euceropsylla YM96
         |           |--E. minuticona YM96
         |           `--E. orizabensis YM96
         |         Euphalerus YM96
         |           |--E. fasciatus YM96
         |           |--E. gallicolus YM96
         |           `--E. nidifex YM96
         |         Freysuila dugesii YM96
         |         Haplaphalara tuxtlaensis YM96
         |         Katacephala YM96
         |           |--K. arcuata YM96
         |           |--K. cinctata YM96
         |           `--K. grandiceps YM96
         |         Limbopsylla lagunculariae YM96
         |         Mitrapsylla YM96
         |           |--M. albalineata YM96
         |           |--M. cubana YM96
         |           `--M. deserata YM96
         |         Neophyllura mexicana YM96
         |         Pachypsylla YM96
         |           |--P. tropicala YM96
         |           `--P. venusta H06
         |         Platycorypha YM96
         |           |--P. amabilis YM96
         |           |--P. magnifrons YM96
         |           `--P. princeps YM96
         |         Syncoptozus mexicanus YM96
         |         Tetragonocephala flava YM96
         |         Chermes TYM08
         |         Nesiope Kirkaldy 1908 K08
         |           `--*N. ornata Kirkaldy 1908 K08
         |         Strophingia P92
         |--Psyllinae H-H61
         |--Spondyliaspinae H-H61
         |--Ciriacreminae H-H61
         |--Aphalarinae H-H61
         `--Liviinae H-H61
              |--Diraphia H-H61
              `--Livia Latreille 1802 L02
                   |--*L. juncorum (Latreille 1798) L02, L98 [=Psylla juncorum L02]
                   `--L. mexicana YM96

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H06] Hassanin, A. 2006. Phylogeny of Arthropoda inferred from mitochondrial sequences: strategies for limiting the misleading effects of multiple changes in pattern and rates of substitution. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 38: 100–116.

[H-H61] Heslop-Harrison, G. 1961. Hemiptera (Homoptera): Psyllidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebec (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 487–532. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L98] Latreille, P. A. 1798. Mémoire sur une nouvelle espèce de psylle, Kermes, L. Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societé Philomathique de Paris 1 (15): 113.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[TYM08] Tennent, W. J., M. Yasuda & K. Morimoto. 2008. Lansania Journal of arachnology and zoology—a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal. Archives of Natural History 35 (2): 252–280.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[YM96] Yang, M.-M., & D. R. Miller. 1996. Checklist of the psyllids (Homoptera: Psylloidea) of Mexico. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 122–125.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 2 May 2022.

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