Psylloidea

Trioza urticae, photographed by Shane Farrell.


Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Psyllinae.

The Psylloidea, jumping plantlice or lerp insects, are a group of small plant-sucking bugs, some of which are notable agricultural pests. They first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic, where they are represented by the Mesozoic families Liadopsyllidae and Malmopsyllidae (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002). Nymphs commonly inhabit protective structures, such as leaf galls induced in host plants or wax secretions produced from the abdomen.

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult small. Genal processes commonly developed. Antennae 10-segmented. Three ocelli. Stylets lodged in internal crumena. Hind legs saltatorial; coxae large, fixed; trochanters condylated; saltatorial spines at apices of tibia and first tarsal segment. R, M and Cu of fore wing each usually single branched; peripheral vein present; clavus present. Proctiger well developed; circumanal wax gland ring(s) usually present in female. Sexes similar. Reproduction bisexual. Nymphs non-saltatorial; dorsoventrally flattened; head and prothorax fused. Stylets at rest looped externally at base of labium. Fore wing pad often produced anteriorly as a humeral lobe. Tibia and tarsus fused in instars I-IV; tarsus one-segmented in final instar (V); well-developed arolium usually present. Wax production common, secreted mostly from base of lanceolate setae or sectasetae on abdomen. Eggs pedunculate, with either peduncle inserted into plant tissue or entire egg embedded in plant.

<==Psylloidea [Saltipedes]
    |--Liadopsylla K-P91 [Liadopsyllidae SP02]
    |--Malmopsyllidae [Neopsylloididae] SP02
    |--Pseudophacopteron [Phacopteronidae] CGW91
    |--Mycopsylla [Homotomidae] CGW91
    |    |--M. fici CGW91
    |    `--M. proxima CGW91
    |--Calophyidae CGW91
    |    |--Calophya CGW91
    |    `--Cecidopsylla CGW91
    |         |--C. paterae CGW91
    |         `--C. putealis CGW91
    `--Psyllidae [Triozidae] H-H61
         |  i. s.: Petalolyma bicolor YS01
         |         Euphyllura H-H61
         |         Paratrioza BM76
         |         Aphalaroida BM76
         |         Bactericera rossica Horváth 1901 H01
         |         Cometopsylla WEE70
         |         Creiis WEE70
         |           |--C. costatus CGW91
         |           `--C. periculosa CGW91
         |--Psyllinae H-H61
         |--Diraphia [Liviinae] H-H61
         |--Ciriacreminae [Carsidaridae, Carsidarinae, Ciriacremidae] H-H61
         |    |--Mesohomotoma hibisci CGW91
         |    |--Tenaphalara H-H61
         |    |--Pauropsylla H-H61
         |    |--Macrohomotoma H-H61
         |    |--Kleiniella H-H61
         |    |--Ciriacremum H-H61
         |    |--Carsidara H-H61
         |    |--Heteropsylla cubana CGW91
         |    |--Protyora sterculiae CGW91
         |    `--Rhinopsylla H-H61 [Rhinopsyllidae]
         |         `--R. lamborni H-H61
         |--Aphalarinae [Aphalaridae, Paurocephalinae, Rhinocolidae, Rhinocolinae] H-H61
         |    |--Craspedolepta H-H61
         |    |--Colposcenia H-H61
         |    |--Stigmaphalara H-H61
         |    |--Gyropsylla H-H61
         |    |--Paurocephala H-H61
         |    |--Phytolyma H-H61
         |    |--Carmarotoscena H-H61
         |    |--Rhinocola crotalariae H-H61
         |    |--Aconopsylla sterculiae CGW91
         |    |--Anomalopsylla CGW91
         |    `--Aphalara H-H61
         |         |--A. artemisiae H01
         |         `--A. innoxia H01
         |--Triozinae H-H61
         |    |--Ceropsylla H-H61
         |    |--Hemitrioza H-H61
         |    |--Schedotrioza CGW91
         |    |--Aacanthocnema casuarinae CGW91
         |    |--Leptynoptera sulfurea CGW91
         |    `--Trioza Förster 1848 H-H61
         |         |--*T. urticae (Linnaeus 1758) H-H61, L58 [=Chermes urticae H-H61]
         |         |--T. alacris H-H61
         |         |--T. arizonae H-H61
         |         |--T. diptera H-H61
         |         |--T. eugeniae CGW91
         |         |--T. nigricornis H-H61
         |         |--T. proxima H-H61
         |         |--T. similis Heslop-Harrison 1961 H-H61
         |         |--T. vanuae Kirkaldy 1907 K08
         |         `--T. vitiensis Kirkaldy 1907 K08
         `--Spondyliaspinae [Spondyliaspidinae] H-H61
              |--Ctenarytaina eucalypti WEE70
              |--Glycaspis baileyi CGW91, SC04
              |--Blastopsylla CGW91
              |--Australopsylla CGW91
              |--Anoeconeossa CGW91
              |--Lasiopsylla rotundipennis CGW91
              |--Syncarpiolyma WEE70
              |--Eucalyptolyma WEE70
              |--Phellopsylla WEE70
              |--Spondyliaspis Signoret 1879 S36
              |    |--S. eucalypti S36
              |    |--S. occidentalis Solomon 1936 S36
              |    `--S. plicatuloides CGW91
              `--Cardiaspina CGW91
                   |--C. albicollaris CGW91
                   |--C. albitextura LS96
                   |--C. densitexta WEE74
                   `--C. textrix CGW91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[CGW91] Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 429–509. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[H-H61] Heslop-Harrison, G. 1961. Hemiptera (Homoptera): Psyllidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebec (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 487–532. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[H01] Horváth, G. 1901. Hemipterák [Hemiptera]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 245–274. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K08] Kirkaldy, G. W. 1908. A catalogue of the Hemiptera of Fiji. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33: 345–391, pl. 4.

[K-P91] Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 141–179. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802–812.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815+Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 143–157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S36] Solomon, M. E. 1936. Description and life-history of a new Western Australian psyllid. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 22: 41–48.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283–292.

[WEE70] Woodward, T. E., J. W. Evans & V. F. Eastop. 1970. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 387–457. Melbourne University Press.

[WEE74] Woodward, T. E., V. F. Eastop & J. W. Evans. 1974. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, etc.) In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 52–57. Melbourne University Press.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1–13.

Last updated: 19 October 2017.

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