Psylloidea

Trioza urticae, photographed by Shane Farrell.


Belongs within: Sternorrhyncha.
Contains: Psyllinae.

The Psylloidea, jumping plantlice or lerp insects, are a group of small plant-sucking bugs, some of which are notable agricultural pests. They first appear in the fossil record in the Jurassic, where they are represented by the Mesozoic families Liadopsyllidae and Malmopsyllidae (Shcherbakov & Popov 2002).

Characters (from Carver et al. 1991): Adult small. Genal processes commonly developed. Antennae 10-segmented. Three ocelli. Stylets lodged in internal crumena. Hind legs saltatorial; coxae large, fixed; trochanters condylated; saltatorial spines at apices of tibia and first tarsal segment. R, M and Cu of fore wing each usually single branched; peripheral vein present; clavus present. Proctiger well developed; circumanal wax gland ring(s) usually present in female. Sexes similar. Reproduction bisexual. Nymphs non-saltatorial; dorsoventrally flattened; head and prothorax fused. Stylets at rest looped externally at base of labium. Fore wing pad often produced anteriorly as a humeral lobe. Tibia and tarsus fused in instars I-IV; tarsus one-segmented in final instar (V); well-developed arolium usually present. Wax production common, secreted mostly from base of lanceolate setae or sectasetae on abdomen. Eggs pedunculate, with either peduncle inserted into plant tissue or entire egg embedded in plant.

<==Psylloidea
    |  i. s.: Brachypsylla H-H61
    |--Liadopsyllidae SP02
    |--Malmopsyllidae [Neopsylloididae] SP02
    `--Psyllidae [Triozidae] H-H61
         |  i. s.: Cardiaspina albitextura LS96
         |         Petalolyma bicolor YS01
         |         Glycaspis baileyi SC04
         |         Euphyllura H-H61
         |         Eucalyptolyma S61
         |         Aacanthocnema AY04
         |         Schedotrioza AY04
         |--Psyllinae H-H61
         |--Diraphia [Liviinae] H-H61
         |--Ciriacreminae [Ciriacremidae] H-H61
         |    |--Mesohomotoma H-H61
         |    |--Tenaphalara H-H61
         |    |--Pauropsylla H-H61
         |    |--Macrohomotoma H-H61
         |    |--Kleiniella H-H61
         |    |--Ciriacremum H-H61
         |    |--Carsidara [Carsidaridae, Carsidarinae] H-H61
         |    `--Rhinopsylla H-H61 [Rhinopsyllidae]
         |         `--R. lamborni H-H61
         |--Aphalarinae [Aphalaridae] H-H61
         |    |--Aphalara H-H61
         |    |--Craspedolepta H-H61
         |    |--Colposcenia H-H61
         |    |--Stigmaphalara H-H61
         |    |--Gyropsylla H-H61
         |    |--Paurocephala H-H61
         |    |--Phytolyma H-H61
         |    |--Carmarotoscena H-H61
         |    `--Rhinocola H-H61 [Rhinocolidae]
         |         `--R. crotalariae H-H61
         |--Spondyliaspinae [Spondyliaspidinae] H-H61
         |    |--Ctenarytaina H-H61
         |    `--Spondyliaspis Signoret 1879 S36
         |         |--S. eucalypti S36
         |         `--S. occidentalis Solomon 1936 S36
         `--Triozinae H-H61
              |--Ceropsylla H-H61
              |--Hemitrioza H-H61
              `--Trioza Förster 1848 H-H61
                   |--*T. urticae [=Chermes urticae] H-H61
                   |--T. alacris H-H61
                   |--T. arizonae H-H61
                   |--T. diptera H-H61
                   |--T. nigricornis H-H61
                   |--T. proxima H-H61
                   `--T. similis Heslop-Harrison 1961 H-H61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under'—diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

Carver, M., G. F. Gross & T. E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia, 2nd ed., vol. 1, pp. 429-509. Melbourne University Press.

[H-H61] Heslop-Harrison, G. 1961. Hemiptera (Homoptera): Psyllidae. In: Hanström, B., P. Brinck & G. Rudebeck. South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 vol. 8 pp. 487-532. Almqvist & Wiksell: Uppsala.

[LS96] Levins, R., & B. B. Schultz. 1996. Effects of density dependence, feedback and environmental sensitivity on correlations among predators, prey and plant resources: Models and practical implications. Journal of Animal Ecology 65: 802-812.

[SP02] Shcherbakov, D. E., & Yu. A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781: Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. [=Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, =Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 143-157. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[S36] Solomon, M. E. 1936. Description and life-history of a new Western Australian psyllid. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 22: 41-48.

[S61] Southcott, R. V. 1961. Studies on the systematics and biology of the Erythraeoidea (Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies. Australian Journal of Zoology 9: 367-610.

[SC04] Stone, C., & N. C. Coops. 2004. Assessment and monitoring of damage from insects in Australian eucalypt forests and commercial plantations. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 283-292.

[YS01] Yoshizawa, K., & T. Saigusa. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of paraneopteran orders (Insecta: Neoptera) based on forewing base structure with comments on monophyly of Auchenorrhycha (Hemiptera). Systematic Entomology 26: 1-13.

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