Osmia cornifrons, photographed by Beatriz Moisset.

Belongs within: Apiformes.

The Megachilidae are a group of long-tongued bees generally characterised by a well-developed scopa (array of long hairs) on the metasomal sterna, and subantennal sutures directed to the outer margins of the antennal sockets (Engel 2001).

Characters (from Engel 2001): Labrum broadly articulated to clypeus, frequently longer than wide. Single subantennal suture; suture meets lower margin of antennal socket in Fideliinae, meets outer margin of antennal socket in Megachilinae and Lithurginae. Facial foveae absent. Lower lateral margins of clypeus not bent posteriorly on either side of labrum. Flabellum present; glossa acute; labial palpus with first two segments flattened, sheath-like, and elongate; submentum strongly V-shaped and sclerotized, submental arms articulating with cardines slightly above cardo-stipital articulations. Galeal comb absent; stipital comb and concavity present; basistiptial process elongate. Pre-episternal groove absent. Mesocoxa entirely exposed. Metabasitibial plate variable (present in Protolithurgini and some Lithurgini along posterior margin; absent in Fideliinae and Megachilinae). Jugal lobe short. Metasomal scopa present (in nonparasitic females). Metapostnotum setose. Pygidial plate and fimbria of female present in Fideliinae and Lithurginae, absent in Megachilinae.

<==Megachilidae [Fideliinae, Fideliini]
    |  i. s.: Heteranthidium larreae C90
    |--Neofidelia profuga Moure & Michener 1955 CSD10
    `--+--Fidelia major (Friese 1911) CSD10
       `--+--+--Pararhopalites [Pararhophitini] CSD10
          |  |    `--P. quadratus (Friese 1898) CSD10
          |  `--Dioxys [Dioxyina, Dioxyini] CSD10
          |       |--D. chalicoda Le Peletier 1849 E12
          |       `--D. pomonae Cockerell 1910 CSD10
          `--Megachilinae [Megachiles] CSD10
               |  i. s.: Chalicodoma ustulatum OC01, B88
               |         Probombus Piton 1940 CSD10, E01
               |           `--*P. hirsutus Piton 1940 E01
               |--Lithurginae E01
               |   |--Protolithurgus Engel 2001 [Protolithurgini] E01
               |   |    `--*P. ditomeus Engel 2001 E01
               |   `--Lithurgini [Trichothurgini] E01
               |        |--+--Microthurge CSD10
               |        |  `--Trichothurgus CSD10 [incl. Lithurgomma E01]
               |        |       `--T. herbsti (Friese 1905) CSD10
               |        `--Lithurgus CSD10
               |             |--L. adamiticus (Heer 1865) E01
               |             |--L. echinocacti Cockerell 1898 CSD10
               |             `--L. rubricatus Smith 1853 E01
               `--+--Anthidiini CSD10
                  |    |  i. s.: Lithanthidium Cockerell 1911 E01
                  |    |           `--*L. pertriste Cockerell 1911 E01
                  |    |         Archianthidium OC01
                  |    |--Trachusa larreae (Cockerell 1897) CSD10
                  |    `--+--Anthidium [Anthidiina] CSD10
                  |       |    |--A. klugii Lucas 1849 E12
                  |       |    `--A. porterae Cockerell 1900 CSD10
                  |       `--+--Stelis linsleyi Timberlake 1941 CSD10
                  |          `--+--Paranthidium jugatorium (Say 1824) CSD10
                  |             `--+--Anthidiellum notatum (Latreille 1809) CSD10
                  |                `--Dianthidium subparvum Swenk 1914 CSD10
                  `--+--Ctenoplectrellini [Ctenoplectrellina] CSD10
                     |    |--Friccomelissa schopowi CSD10
                     |    |--Glaesosmia Engel 2001 E01
                     |    |    `--*G. genalis Engel 2001 E01
                     |    `--Ctenoplectrella Cockerell 1909 E01
                     |         |--*C. viridiceps Cockerell 1909 (see below for synonymy) E01
                     |         |--C. cockerelli Engel 2001 E01
                     |         `--C. grimaldii Engel 2001 E01
                     `--Osmiini [Chelostomidae, Glyptapidae, Osmiites, Trypetini] E01
                          |  i. s.: Ochreriades E01
                          |         Apiaria Germar 1839 E01
                          |           `--*A. dubia Germar 1839 E01
                          |         Glyptapis Cockerell 1909 [Glyptapina, Glyptapinae] E01
                          |           |--*G. mirabilis Cockerell 1909 E01
                          |           |--G. densopunctata Engel 2001 E01
                          |           |--G. disareolata Engel 2001 E01
                          |           `--G. fuscula Cockerell 1909 (see below for synonymy) E01
                          |--+--Afroheriades hyalinus CSD10
                          |  `--Megachilini [Chalicodomopsini, Coelioxyinae]
                          |       |--Coelioxys alternata Say 1837 CSD10
                          |       `--Megachile Latreille 1802 E01
                          |            |  i. s.: M. angelarum Cockerell 1902 CSD10
                          |            |         M. ericetorum Lepeletier 1841 CSD10
                          |            |         M. lineatipes R55
                          |            |         M. rangii B88
                          |            |         M. rotundata DH02
                          |            |--M. (Chalicodomopsis) Engel 1999 E01
                          |            |    `--M. (*C.) glaesaria Engel 1999 E01
                          |            `--M. (Mitchellapis) fabricator YHT05
                          `--+--Chelostoma Latreille 1809 CSD10, E01
                             |    |--C. californicum Cresson 1878 CSD10
                             |    `--C. mauritanica Lucas 1849 E12
                             `--+--+--Protosmia rubifloris (Cockerell 1898) CSD10
                                |  `--Heriades Spinola 1808 CSD10, E01 (see below for synonymy)
                                |       `--H. crucifer Cockerell 1897 CSD10
                                `--+--Hoplitis albifrons (Kirby 1837) CSD10
                                   `--+--Ashmeadiella aridula Cockerell 1910 CSD10
                                      `--+--Hoplosmia scutellaris (Morawitz 1868) CSD10
                                         `--Osmiina E01
                                              |--Metalinella E01
                                              `--Osmia Panzer 1806 CSD10, E01
                                                   |--O. cornifrons KIW98
                                                   |--O. lignaria Say 1837 CSD10
                                                   |--O. luctuosa Lucas 1848 E12
                                                   |--O. metallica Lucas 1848 E12
                                                   `--O. pumila KIW98

*Ctenoplectrella viridiceps Cockerell 1909 [incl. C. dentata Salt 1931, C. splendens Kelner-Pilaut 1970] E01

Glyptapis fuscula Cockerell 1909 [incl. G. neglecta Salt 1931, G. reducta Cockerell 1909, G. reticulata Cockerell 1909] E01

Heriades Spinola 1808 CSD10, E01 [incl. Trypetes Schenck 1861 E01; Heriadini, Trypetina]

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[CSD10] Cardinal, S., J. Straka & B. N. Danforth. 2010. Comprehensive phylogeny of apid bees reveals the evolutionary origins and antiquity of cleptoparasitism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 107 (37): 16207-16211.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421-475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[DH02] Donovan, B. J., A. Havron, D. M. Leathwick & J. S. Ishay. 2002. Release of Sphecophaga orientalis Donovan (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Cryptinae) in New Zealand as a possible ‘new association’ biocontrol agent for the adventive social wasps Vespula germanica (F.) and Vespula vulgaris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae). New Zealand Entomologist 25: 17-25.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1-192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[KIW98] Kearns, C. A., D. W. Inouye & N. M. Waser. 1998. Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant-pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 83-112.

[OC01] OConnor, B. M. 2001. Historical ecology of the Acaridae (Acari): Phylogenetic evidence for host and habitat shifts. In Acarology: Proceedings of the 10th International Congress (R. B. Halliday, D. E. Walter, H. C. Proctor, R. A. Norton & M. J. Colloff, eds) pp. 76-82. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne.

[R55] Rayment, T. 1955. Taxonomy, morphology and biology of sericophorine wasps with diagnoses of two new genera and descriptions of forty new species and six sub-species. Memoirs of the National Museum, Melbourne 19: 1-95.

[YHT05] Yates, C. J., S. D. Hopper & R. H. Taplin. 2005. Native insect flower visitor diversity and feral honeybees on jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) in Kings Park, an urban bushland remnant. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 147-153.

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