Mining bee Andrena chrysosceles, photographed by Dick Belgers.

Belongs within: Anthophila.

The Andrenidae are a family of short-tongued bees that nest in soil, found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. They are characterised by the presence of two subantennal sutures below each antenna, which are usually not convergent below. Members of the subfamily Andreninae are most diverse in Eurasia and North America whereas members of the other subfamilies are mostly southern in distribution (Engel 2001). The New World Oxaeinae have the marginal cell of the fore wing particularly elongate with the stigma being all but absent.

    |  i. s.: Lutziella R35
    |         Cilissa leporina R35
    |         Macrotera portalis [=Perdita portalis] H18
    |--Andreninae E01
    |    |--Lithandrena Cockerell 1906 E01
    |    |    `--*L. saxorum Cockerell 1906 E01
    |    |--Pelandrena Cockerell 1909 E01
    |    |    `--*P. reducta Cockerell 1909 E01
    |    `--Andrena E01
    |         |--A. albopilosa Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. amethystina [=Apis amethystina] L02
    |         |--A. annulipes Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. apacheorum R35
    |         |--A. armata I92
    |         |--A. asteris BD17
    |         |--A. aterrima R35
    |         |--A. bucephala RD77
    |         |--A. carbonaria [=Apis carbonaria] L02
    |         |--A. chlorosoma M76
    |         |--A. chrysosceles A71
    |         |--A. cineraria (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Apis cineraria L02]
    |         |--A. cirtana Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. complexa K91
    |         |--A. cylindrica [=Hylaeus cylindricus] L02
    |         |--A. distincta Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. flavipes R35
    |         |--A. flessae R35
    |         |--A. fulva R35
    |         |--A. helianthi R35
    |         |--A. labiata L02
    |         |--A. lepeletieri Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. melanosoma Lucas 1847 E12
    |         |--A. nigrihirta M76
    |         |--A. nigroaenea BD17
    |         |--A. ovina R35
    |         |--A. rufiventris R35
    |         |--A. sexcincta [=Hylaeus sexcinctus] L02
    |         |--A. vaga PK17
    |         |--A. vestita [=Apis vestita] L02
    |         `--A. wrisleyi Salt 1931 (n. d.) E01
    `--+--Alocandreninae E01
       `--+--Euherbstiinae E01
          `--+--Oxaeinae [Oxaeidae] E01
             |    |--Oxaea flavescens [=Nomada (Oxaea) flavescens] G20
             |    `--Protoxaea R35
             |         |--P. gloriosa BD17
             |         `--P. texana R35
             `--Panurginae [Panurgidae] E01
                  |  i. s.: Libellulapis Cockerell 1906 E01
                  |           `--*L. antiquorum Cockerell 1906 E01
                  |--Heterosarus [Protandrenini] E01
                  |    `--H. eickworti E01
                  `--+--+--Perdita C90 [Perditini E01]
                     |  |    |--P. echinocacti BD17
                     |  |    |--P. minima R35
                     |  |    |--P. opuntia R35
                     |  |    `--P. (*Neoperdita) zebrata R35
                     |  `--+--Protomeliturgini E01
                     |     `--Calliopsis R35 [Calliopsini E01]
                     |          |--C. coloradensis R35
                     |          |--C. lepidus C01
                     |          |--C. nebraskensis R35
                     |          `--C. rhodophilus C01
                     `--+--+--Meliturgula [Meliturgulini, Paramelitturgini] E01
                        |  `--Meliturga R35 [Melitturgini E01, Mermiglossini]
                        |       `--M. clavicornis [=Eucera (Melitturga) clavicornis] G20
                        `--Panurgini [Camptopoeumini, Panurginini] E01
                             |--Camptopoeum R35
                             |    |--C. hirsutullum R35
                             |    `--C. sacrum PK17
                             |--Panurginus MS01
                             |    |--P. boylei C01
                             |    |--P. labiatus MS01
                             |    `--P. pauper [incl. P. pauper var. flavotinctus] C01
                             `--Panurgus F05
                                  |--P. banksianus R13
                                  |--P. calcaratus R35
                                  |--P. dentipes PK17
                                  |--P. (Panurgus) lobatus G20
                                  `--P. (Pachycephalopanurgus) meridionalis Patiny, Ortiz-Sánchez & Michez 2005 F05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BD17] Branstetter, M. G., B. N. Danforth, J. P. Pitts, B. C. Faircloth, P. S. Ward, M. L. Buffington, M. W. Gates, R. R. Kula & S. G. Brady. 2017. Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees. Current Biology 27: 1019–1025.

[C01] Cockerell, T. D. A. 1901. Contributions from the New Mexico Biological Station.—X. Observations on bees collected at Las Vegas, New Mexico, and in the adjacent mountains. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 125–131.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[H18] Houston, T. 2018. A Guide to Native Bees of Australia. CSIRO Publishing.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[M76] Moldenke, A. R. 1976. California pollination ecology and vegetation types. Phytologia 34 (4): 305–361.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R13] Reuter, O. M. 1913. Lebensgewohnheiten und Instinkte der Insekten bis zum Erwachen der sozialen Instinkte. R. Friedländer & Sohn: Berlin.

Last updated: 8 March 2021.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS