Andrenidae

Mining bee Andrena chrysosceles, photographed by Dick Belgers.


Belongs within: Apiformes.

The Andrenidae are a family of short-tongued bees that nest in soil, found on all continents except Australia and Antarctica. They are characterised by the presence of two subantennal sutures below each antenna, which are usually not convergent below (Michener 2000). Members of the subfamily Andreninae are most diverse in Eurasia and North America whereas members of the other subfamilies are mostly southern in distribution (Engel 2001).

<==Andrenidae
    |  i. s.: Lutziella R35
    |         Cilissa leporina R35
    |--+--Alocandreninae E01
    |  `--+--Euherbstiinae E01
    |     `--+--Oxaeinae [Oxaeidae] E01
    |        |    |--Protoxaea texana R35
    |        |    `--Oxaea R35
    |        `--Panurginae [Panurgidae] E01
    |             |  i. s.: Libellulapis Cockerell 1906 E01
    |             |           `--*L. antiquorum Cockerell 1906 E01
    |             |--Heterosarus [Protandrenini] E01
    |             |    `--H. eickworti E01
    |             `--+--+--Perdita C90 [Perditini E01]
    |                |  |    |--P. minima R35
    |                |  |    |--P. opuntia R35
    |                |  |    `--P. (*Neoperdita) zebrata R35
    |                |  `--+--Protomeliturgini E01
    |                |     `--Calliopsis R35 [Calliopsini E01]
    |                |          |--C. coloradensis R35
    |                |          `--C. nebraskensis R35
    |                `--+--+--Meliturgula [Meliturgulini, Paramelitturgini] E01
    |                   |  `--Meliturga R35 [Melitturgini E01, Mermiglossini]
    |                   |       `--M. clavicornis R35
    |                   `--Panurgini [Camptopoeumini, Panurginini] E01
    |                        |--Panurginus labiatus MS01
    |                        |--Camptopoeum R35
    |                        |    |--C. hirsutullum R35
    |                        |    `--C. sacrum PK17
    |                        `--Panurgus F05
    |                             |--P. calcaratus R35
    |                             |--P. dentipes PK17
    |                             `--P. (Pachycephalopanurgus) meridionalis Patiny, Ortiz-Sánchez & Michez 2005 F05
    `--Andreninae E01
         |--Lithandrena Cockerell 1906 E01
         |    `--*L. saxorum Cockerell 1906 E01
         |--Pelandrena Cockerell 1909 E01
         |    `--*P. reducta Cockerell 1909 E01
         `--Andrena E01
              |--A. albopilosa Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. amethystina [=Apis amethystina] L02
              |--A. annulipes Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. apacheorum R35
              |--A. armata I92
              |--A. aterrima R35
              |--A. carbonaria [=Apis carbonaria] L02
              |--A. chrysosceles A71
              |--A. cineraria (Linnaeus 1758) L02, L58 [=Apis cineraria L02]
              |--A. cirtana Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. complexa K91
              |--A. cylindrica [=Hylaeus cylindricus] L02
              |--A. distincta Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. flavipes R35
              |--A. flessae R35
              |--A. fulva R35
              |--A. helianthi R35
              |--A. labiata L02
              |--A. lepeletieri Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. melanosoma Lucas 1848 E12
              |--A. ovina R35
              |--A. rufiventris R35
              |--A. sexcincta [=Hylaeus sexcinctus] L02
              |--A. subaurata [=Apis subaurata] L02
              |--A. vaga PK17
              |--A. vestita [=Apis vestita] L02
              `--A. wrisleyi Salt 1931 (n. d.) E01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[C90] Crawford, C. S. 1990. Scorpiones, Solifugae, and associated desert taxa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 421–475. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[E01] Engel, M. S. 2001. A monograph of the Baltic amber bees and evolution of the Apoidea (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 259: 1–192.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[I92] Imes, R. 1992. The Practical Entomologist. Aurum Press: London.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle des Fourmis, et recueil de mémoires et d'observations sur les abeilles, les araignées, les faucheurs, et autres insectes. Théophile Barrois père: Paris.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

Michener, C. D. 2000. The Bees of the World. John Hopkins University Press.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[PK17] Peters, R. S., L. Krogmann, C. Mayer, A. Donath, S. Gunkel, K. Meusemann, A. Kozlov, L. Podsiadlowski, M. Petersen, R. Lanfear, P. A. Diez, J. Heraty, K. M. Kjer, S. Klopfstein, R. Meier, C. Polidori, T. Schmitt, S. Liu, X. Zhou, T. Wappler, J. Rust, B. Misof & O. Niehuis. 2017. Evolutionary history of the Hymenoptera. Current Biology 27 (7): 1013–1018.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

Last updated: 23 September 2017.

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