Sematophyllum subpinnatum, from here.

Belongs within: Hypnales.

The Sematophyllaceae are a family of mosses found primarily in tropical and subtropical parts of the world, with the majority of species being epiphytic. The family is distinguished by the presence of a well-defined row of alar cells in the leaf (Tan et al. 1996). Members of the type genus Sematophyllum are slender, creeping mosses with nerveless or shortly two-nerved leaves and a long slender beak on the capsule lid (Dixon 1924).

Characters (from Tan et al. 1996): Pleurocarpous, with a basal row of much enlarged, thin- to thick-walled, often coloured, alar cells; rows of smaller supra-alar cells may be present. Weakly to strongly collenchymatous exothecial cells. Calyptra cucullate; operculum long, rostrate; hypnoid peristome.

    |  i. s.: ‘Chaetomitrium’ entodontoides Broth. & Watts 1918 SK02
    |--Struckia argentata N02
    |--Pylaisiopsis speciosa N02
    |--Trolliella euendostoma N02
    |--Tristichella Dixon 1932 SK02
    |--Glossadelphus Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |    `--G. zollingeri (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1923 [=Hypnum zollingeri Müll.Hal. 1851] SG07
    |--Acanthorrhynchium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |    `--A. papillatum (Harv.) Fleischer 1923 [=Taxithelium papillatum, Wijkia papillata (nom. inv.)] SK02
    |--Isocladiella Dixon 1931 SK02
    |    `--I. wattsii (Broth.) Tan, Ramsay & Schofield 1996 [=Taxithelium wattsii Broth. 1918] SK02
    |--Macrohymenium Müll.Hal. 1847 SK02
    |    `--M. mitratum (Dozy & Molk.) Fleischer 1923 [incl. M. rufum (nom. illeg.)] SK02
    |--Meiotheciella Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 SK02
    |    `--M. papillosa (Broth.) Tan, Ramsay & Schofield 1988 SK02
    |--Papillidiopsis (Broth.) Buck & Tan 1989 SK02
    |    `--P. ramulina (Thwaites & Mitt.) Buck & Tan 1989 SK02
    |--Pseudohypnella (Broth.) Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |    `--P. verrucosa (Dozy & Molk.) Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |--Trismegistia (Müll.Hal.) Müll.Hal. 1896 SK02
    |    `--T. rigida (Mitt.) Broth. 1908 [incl. T. lancifolia (Harv.) Broth. 1908] SK02
    |--Brotherella N02
    |    |--B. amblystegia N02
    |    `--B. pallida N02
    |--Clastobryum Dozy & Molk. 1846 SK02
    |    |--C. conspicuum Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |    |--C. dimorphum (Stone) Tan, Iwats. & Norris 1992 [=Tristichella dimorpha Stone 1987] SK02
    |    `--C. epiphyllum (Renauld & Cardot) Tan & Touw 1991 SK02
    |--Radulina Buck & Tan 1989 SK02
    |    `--R. hamata (Dozy & Molk.) Buck & Tan 1989 [=Trichosteleum hamatum (Dozy & Molk.) Jaeger 1878] SK02
    |         |--R. h. var. hamata SK02
    |         `--‘Trichosteleum hamatum’ var. semimammillosum (Müll.Hal.) Paris 1898 SK02
    |--Wijkia Crum 1971 SK02
    |    |--‘Hypnum’ devexum [=Eurhynchium devexum (Bosw.) Paris 1896] SK02
    |    |--W. extenuata (Brid.) Crum 1971 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--W. flagellifera J87
    |    `--W. tanytricha N02
    |--Rhaphidostegium (Schimp.) De Not. 1867 (nom. illeg.) SK02
    |    |--R. callidum D03
    |    |--R. noduliferum D03
    |    |--R. pallens D03
    |    `--R. secundifolium D03
    |--Trichosteleum Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    |--T. boschii (Dozy & Molk.) Jaeger 1878 SK02
    |    |--T. fissum B57
    |    |--T. ruficaule (Thwaites & Mitt.) Tan 1991 [incl. T. elegantulum Broth. & Watts 1918] SK02
    |    |--T. subfalcatulum (Broth. & Watts) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    `--T. wattsii (Paris) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Warburgiella Müll.Hal. ex Broth. 1900 SK02
    |    |--W. cupressinoides Müll.Hal. ex Broth. 1900 SK02
    |    |--W. leptorhynchoides (Mitt.) Fleischer 1923 [incl. W. subleptorhynchoides (Fleischer) Fleischer 1923] SK02
    |    |--W. leptorrhyncha (Jaeger) Broth. 1925 [=Rhaphidostegium leptorrhynchum] SK02
    |    `--W. leucocytus (Müll.Hal.) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Meiothecium Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    |--M. jagorii (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1908 SK02
    |    |--M. secundifolium Dixon 1948 SK02
    |    |--M. speciosa N02
    |    |--M. tenellum Broth. & Paris 1911 [incl. M. brotheri] SK02
    |    `--M. wattsii (Broth.) Broth. 1908 [=Pterogoniella wattsii] SK02
    |--Rhaphidorrhynchium Fleischer 1923 SK02
    |    |--R. amoenum (Hedw.) Fleischer 1923 [=Hypnum amoenum, Rhaphidostegium amoenum, Sematophyllum amoenum] SK02
    |    |    |--R. a. var. amoenum (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |    `--R. a. var. congruens Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--R. calliferum (Geh. & Hampe) Fleischer 1923 [=Rhaphidostegium calliferum, Sematophyllum calliferum] SK02
    |    `--R. tuloferum (Hampe) Broth. 1925 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |--Taxithelium Spruce ex Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |--T. instratum (Brid.) Broth. 1901 SK02
    |    |--T. kerianum (Broth.) Broth. 1908 [=Trichosteleum kerianum] SK02
    |    |--T. lindbergii B57
    |    |--T. merrillii Broth. 1918 SK02
    |    |--T. muscicola (Broth.) Tan, Ramsay & Schofield 1996 [=Trichosteleum muscicola Broth. 1900] SK02
    |    |--T. nepalense (Schwägr.) Broth. 1899 [=Hypnum nepalense Schwägr. 1828] SG07
    |    |--T. petrophilum Williams 1914 SK02
    |    |--T. planum (Brid.) Mitt. 1869 SK02
    |    |--T. polystichum M49
    |    `--T. selenithecium (Müll.Hal.) Paris ex Broth. 1908 SK02
    |--Acroporium Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    |--A. caespitosum J87
    |    |--A. erythropodium (Hampe) Broth. 1925 (see below for synonymy) SK02
    |    |--A. lamprophyllum Mitt. 1868 SK02
    |    |    |--A. l. var. lamprophyllum SK02
    |    |    `--A. l. var. percaudatum (Bartram) Tan, Ramsay & Schofield 1996 SK02
    |    |--A. microcladum (Dozy & Molk.) Tan 1997 SK02
    |    |    |--A. m. var. microcladum SK02
    |    |    `--A. m. var. rhizogemmae Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 SK02
    |    `--A. rufum (Reinw. & Hornsch.) Fleischer 1923 SK02
    `--Sematophyllum Mitt. 1864 SK02
         |--S. crassiusculum (Brid.) Broth. 1925 [=Hypnum crassiusculum, Rhaphidostegium crassiusculum] SK02
         |--S. demissum [=Hypnum demissum, Plagiothecium demissum, Rhynchostegium demissum] D24
         |--S. homomallum (Hampe) Broth. 1925 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. humile (Mitt.) Broth. in Engl. & Prantl 1925 (see below for synonymy) DD03
         |--S. insularum J87
         |--S. jolliffii (Hooker) Dixon 1937 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. lindigii J87
         |--S. macrosporum M49
         |--S. micans [incl. Hypnum novae-caesareae, Rhynchostegium novae-caesareae] D24
         |    |--S. m. var. micans D24
         |    `--S. m. var. badense Herzog 1901 D24
         |--S. phoeniceum N02
         |--S. saproxylophilum (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1923 [=Rhaphidostegium saproxylophilum] SK02
         |--S. subcylindricum (Broth. ex Fleischer) Sainsbury 1952 SK02
         |--S. subhumile (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1923 SK02
         |    |--S. s. var. subhumile (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |    `--S. s. var. contiguum (Mitt.) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         |--S. subpinnatum (Brid.) Britton 1918 (see below for synonymy) SK02
         `--S. uncinatum Stone & Scott 1973 (see below for synonymy) SK02

Nomina nuda: Acroporium kerianum Broth. 1925 [=Sematophyllum kerianum Broth. & Paris 1925] SK02
             Rhaphidostegium austrocircinale
Broth. ex Bailey 1896 SK02
             Rhaphidostegium berberidis Dusén 1903 D03
             Rhaphidostegium exalare Müll.Hal. ex Bailey 1896 SK02
             Rhaphidostegium patagonicum Broth. in Dusén 1903 D03
             Rhaphidostegium polytrichadelphum Dusén 1903 D03
             Rhaphidostegium pseudohomomallum Müll.Hal. ex Forsyth 1900 SK02
             Rhaphidostegium strictipes Dusén 1903 D03
             Rhaphidostegium tristifolium Dusén 1903 D03
             Rhaphidostegium vesiculiforme Müll.Hal. ex Burges 1935 SK02

Acroporium erythropodium (Hampe) Broth. 1925 [=Hypnum erythropodium, Rhynchostegium erythropodium, Sematophyllum erythropodium (preoc.)] SK02

Rhaphidorrhynchium amoenum (Hedw.) Fleischer 1923 var. amoenum [incl. Hypnum callidioides, Rhaphidorrhynchium callidioides (Müll.Hal.) Broth. 1925, Rhaphidostegium callidioides, Sematophyllum callidioides, Hypnum cyparioides, Rhaphidorrhynchium cyparioides, Rhaphidostegium cyparioides, Stereodon cyparoides, Hypnum leptorhynchum (nom. illeg.), Stereodon leptorhynchus (nom. inv.)] SK02

Rhaphidorrhynchium amoenum var. congruens Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 [=Hypnum congruens, Rhaphidorrhynchium congruens (Hampe) Broth. 1925, Rhaphidostegium congruens, Rhynchostegium congruens] SK02

Rhaphidorrhynchium tuloferum (Hampe) Broth. 1925 [=Hypnum tuloferum, Rhaphidostegium tuloferum, Rhynchostegium tuloferum] SK02

Sematophyllum homomallum (Hampe) Broth. 1925 [=Leskea homomalla, Hypnum homomallum, Pylaisia homomalla, Rhaphidostegium homomallum, Rhaphidorrhynchum homomallum (nom. inv.); incl. Hypnum drummondii, Leskea drummondii (nom. inv.), H. keysii (n. n.)] SK02

Sematophyllum humile (Mitt.) Broth. in Engl. & Prantl 1925 [=Stereodon humilis Mitt. 1859, Rhaphidostegium humile (Mitt.) Jaeger 1876-1879] DD03

Sematophyllum jolliffii (Hooker) Dixon 1937 [=Hypnum jolliffii, Rhaphidorrhynchium jolliffii (Hooker) Broth. 1925, Rhaphidorrhynchum jolliffii (nom. inv.), Rhaphidostegium jolliffii, Stereodon jolliffii] SK02

Sematophyllum subhumile var. contiguum (Mitt.) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 [=Stereodon contiguus, Rhaphidorrhynchum contiguum (nom. inv.), Rhaphidostegium contiguum, Sematophyllum contiguum (Mitt.) Mitt. 1873; incl. Rhynchohypnum subpungens (nom. inv.), Rhynchostegium subpungens (n. n.)] SK02

Sematophyllum subhumile (Müll.Hal.) Fleischer 1923 var. subhumile [incl. Rhaphidostegium aciculum, Hypnum aciculum (nom. inv.), R. acicula (n. n.), Sematophyllum aciculum (Broth. ex Dixon) Dixon 1933, R. calocarpum (n. n.), S. elachistos (Besch.) Broth. 1925, R. lucidendroides (n. n.), R. luciduloides Dixon 1929] SK02

Sematophyllum subpinnatum (Brid.) Britton 1918 [incl. S. caespitosum Mitt. 1869, Rhaphidostegium caespitosum, R. ovale, R. pseudodemissum (n. n.)] SK02

Sematophyllum uncinatum Stone & Scott 1973 [incl. Hypnum tenuirostre, Rhaphidorrhynchium tenuirostre, Rhaphidorrhynchum tenuirostre (nom. inv.), Rhaphidostegium tenuirostre, Sematophyllum tenuirostre (preoc.), Rhaphidostegium tingiringense (n. n.)] SK02

Trichosteleum subfalcatulum (Broth. & Watts) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 [=Rhaphidostegium subfalcatulum, Rhaphidorrhynchium subfalcatulum (Broth. & Watts) Broth. 1925; incl. Trichosteleum pallidum Dixon 1942] SK02

Trichosteleum wattsii (Paris) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 [=Rhaphidostegium wattsii, Sematophyllum wattsii (Paris) Broth. 1925; incl. Leptorrhynchohypnum glaucoviride, Hypnum glaucoviride, Rhaphidostegium glaucoviride, Rhynchostegium glaucoviride, Sematophyllum glaucoviride (Jaeger) Broth. 1925, Rhaphidostegium micropyxis (preoc.)] SK02

Warburgiella leucocytus (Müll.Hal.) Tan, Schofield & Ramsay 1998 [=Rhaphidorrhynchium leucocytus, Rhaphidostegium leucocytus, Sematophyllum leucocytus (Müll.Hal.) Sainsbury 1955, Warburgiella leucocyta; incl. Hypnum cerviculatum, Rhaphidorrhynchium cerviculatum, Rhaphidorrhynchum cerviculatum (l. c.), Rhaphidostegium cerviculatum, Stereodon cerviculatus, Hypnum trachychaetum, Rhaphidorrhynchium trachychaetum, Rhaphidostegium trachychaetum, Rhynchostegium trachychaetum, Taxithelium trachychaetum] SK02

Wijkia extenuata (Brid.) Crum 1971 [=Hypnum extenuatum, Acanthocladium extenuatum, Sematophyllum extenuatum; incl. Hypnum crinitum, Acanthocladium crinitum, Sematophyllum crinitum, A. crossii, Wijkia crossii (Broth. & Geh. ex Broth.) Crum 1971, A. extenuatum f. flagellaris Broth. ex Watts 1901 (n. n.), Hypnum filiferum (nom. inv.), Stereodon flagelliramus, H. glaucescens (nom. inv.), Rhynchostegium glaucescens, Acanthocladium macroextenuatum (n. n.), Hypnum polyurum (n. n.), H. pseudoextenuatum, Acanthocladium pseudoextenuatum (n. n.), A. rigidifolium, Wijkia rigidifolia (Dixon) Crum 1971, A. extenuatum var. rivuletorum (n. n.), A. sericeum (n. n.), Hypnum subextenuatum, A. subextenuatum (n. n.)] SK02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B57] Bartram, E. B. 1957. Additional Fijian mosses, III. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (12): 392–396.

[DD03] Daniels, A. E. D., & P. Daniel. 2003. Addition to the bryoflora of India. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 225–226.

[D24] Dixon, H. N. 1924. The Student's Handbook of British Mosses 3rd ed. V. V. Sumfield: Eastbourne.

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. Patagonian and Fuegian mosses. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 63–126. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[J87] Judd, W. S. 1987. Floristic study of Morne La Visite and Pic Macaya National Parks, Haiti. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum—Biological Sciences 32 (1): 1–136.

[M49] Martin, W. 1949. Distribution of the mosses indigenous to New Zealand (supplement no. 1). Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (3): 355–360.

[N02] Negi, H. R. 2002. Abundance and diversity of moss communities of Chopta-Tunganath in the Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 418–433.

[SG07] Singh, S. K., & J. P. Ghosh. 2007. Bryo-diversity in Indian Botanic Garden, Howrah, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49 (1–4): 155–164.

[SK02] Streimann, H., & N. Klazenga. 2002. Catalogue of Australian Mosses. Flora of Australia Supplementary Series 17. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

Tan, B. C., H. P. Ramsey & W. P. Schofield. 1996. A contribution to Australian Sematophyllaceae (Bryopsida). Australian Systematic Botany 9 (3): 319-327.

Last updated: 7 January 2018.

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