Partial right dentary of Ernestokokenia cf. nitida, from Muizon & Cifelli (2000).

Belongs within: Euungulata.
Contains: Kollpaniinae, Litopterna.

The Panameriungulata are an extinct group of herbivorous mammals known from North and South America. Non-litoptern panameriungulates are mostly known from dental remains only. The North American 'Mioclaeninae' are characterised by more or less enlarged, inflated fourth premolars, and simplified premolars and molars. Mioclaenines were regarded by Muizon & Cifelli (2000) as paraphyletic to a South American clade including the Kollpaniinae, Didolodontidae and Litopterna. Synapomorphies of this latter group include a large and distinct metaconid on p4, a posteriorly deeply arched paracristid, a large and conical hypoconid, and enlarged M3s. Except the litopterns (which survived to the Pleistocene), most panameriungulates became extinct after the Eocene.

Synapomorphies (from Muizon & Cifelli 2000): Metacone of P4 present as small swelling of postparacrista; stylar shelf reduced to a labial cingulum; stylone and parastyle fused, parastylar groove absent; pre- and postcingula reaching or almost reaching para- and metastyles; lower canine reduced; entocristid with anterior extremity at lingual base of metaconid; hypoconulid and entoconid connate or fused.

Panameriungulata [Mioclaenidae, Mioclaeninae]
    |--Litaletes Simpson 1935 MC00, S35
    |    `--*L. disjunctus Simpson 1935 S35
    `--+--Choeroclaenus turgidunculus (Cope 1888) MC00
       |--Promioclaenus Trouessart 1904 MC00
       |    |--P. acolytus (Cope 1882) [=Hyopsodus acolytus, Ellipsodon acolytus, Mioclaenus acolytus] MC00
       |    |--P. aquilonius MC00
       |    |--P. gandaensis Dehm & Oettingen-Spielberg 1958 V66
       |    |--P. lemuroides [=Mioclaenus lemuroides] MC00
       |    `--P. pipiringosi MC00
       `--+--Mioclaenus turgidus MC00
          |--Ellipsodon aquilonius Simpson 1935 MC00, S35
          `--+--Kollpaniinae MC00
             `--Didolodontidae MC00
                  |--Lamegoia conodonta Paula Couto 1952 MC00
                  `--+--Didolodus Ameghino 1879 MC00, D07 [incl. Enneoconus MC00, Paulogervaisia MC00]
                     |    |--D. minor D07
                     |    `--D. multicuspis Ameghino 1897 MC00
                     |--+--Paulacoutoia protocenica (Paula Couto 1952) MC00
                     |  `--Litopterna MC00
                     `--Ernestokokenia MC00
                          |--E. nitida Ameghino 1901 MC00
                          |--E. protocenica Paula Couto 1952 MC00
                          `--E. yirunhor MC00

Panameriungulata incertae sedis:
  Wainka tshotshe MC00
  Valenia Muizon & Cifelli 2000 MC00
    `--*V. wilsoni (van Valen 1978) [=Promioclaenus wilsoni] MC00
  Tiznatzinia vanderhoofi Simpson 1936 [=Promioclaenus vanderhoofi] MC00
  Paroxyclaenidae [Kochictidae] V66
    |--Paroxyclaenus Teilhard 1921 V66
    |--Kopidodon Weitzel 1933 V66
    |    `--*K. macrognathus (Wittich 1902) [=Cryptopithecus macrognathus] V66
    |--Kochictis Kretzoi 1943 V67
    |--Pugiodens Matthes 1952 [incl. Russellites Van Valen 1965, Vulpavoides Matthes 1952] V67
    |    `--P. simplicidens (Van Valen 1965) V67
    `--Dulcidon Van Valen 1965 V67

*Type species of generic name indicated


[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[MC00] Muizon, C. de, & R. L. Cifelli. 2000. The “condylarths” (archaic Ungulata, Mammalia) from the early Palaeocene of Tiupampa (Bolivia): implications on the origin of the South American ungulates. Geodiversitas 22 (1): 47–150.

[S35] Simpson, G. G. 1935. New Paleocene mammals from the Fort Union of Montana. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83 (2981): 221–244.

[V66] Van Valen, L. 1966. Deltatheridia, a new order of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 132 (1): 1–126.

[V67] Van Valen, L. 1967. New Paleocene insectivores and insectivore classification. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 135 (5): 217–284.

Last updated: 6 August 2018.

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