Odonatoptera

Reconstruction of Meganeuropsis by Karen Carr.


Belongs within: Pterygota.
Contains: Pandiscoidalia.

The Odonatoptera contain the living Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) plus all fossil taxa more closely related to odonates than other living insects. The earliest known odonatopterans are recorded from the Upper Carboniferous. The best known of the basal odonatopterans are the meganeurids which had the largest wingspans of any known insect, up to about 640 mm in Meganeuropsis permiana (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

Characters (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Wings with anal region reduced; distinctive form of bracing with kink in CuP where it meets AA; only two articular plates at wing base.

<==Odonatoptera [Libellulida, Libellulidea, Meganeurina, Odonatoidea, Odonatomorpha]
    |  i. s.: Hemeroscopus [Hemeroscopidae] R02
    |           `--H. baissicus Pritykina 1977 R02
    |         Eocordulia cretacea R02
    |         Erasipteroides [Erasipteridae] GE05
    |           `--E. valentini GE05
    |         Namurotypus [Namurotypidae] RP02
    |         Titanophasma fayoli RP02
    |         Parahemiphlebia mickoleiti GE05
    |--Eugeropteridae [Geroptera] GE05
    |    |--Eogeropteron lunatum RP02
    |    `--Geropteron arcuatum RP02
    `--Holodonata GE05
         |--Protodonata [Meganeuroidea, Meganeuromorpha] GE05
         |    |--Paralogidae GE05
         |    |--Kohlwaldiidae NB01
         |    |--Kargalotypus Rohdendorf 1962 [Kargalotypidae, Kargalotypinae] NB01
         |    |    `--*K. kargalensis (Martynov 1932) [=Megatypus kargalensis] NB01
         |    `--Meganeuridae GE05
         |         |--Arctotypus sinuatus GE05
         |         |--Meganeuropsis permiana Z02 [incl. M. americana GE05]
         |         |--Meganeura monyi GE05
         |         |--Megatypus schucherti GE05
         |         `--Tupus gracilis GE05
         `--Odonatoclada RP02
              |--Campylopteridae [Campylopterodea] RP02
              `--Panodialata NB01
                   |--Lapeyria [Lapeyriidae] NB01
                   |    `--L. magnifica Nel, Gand & Garric 1999 NB01
                   `--Nodialata RP02
                        |--Pandiscoidalia RP02
                        `--Ditaxineuroidea [Protanisoptera] RP02
                             |  i. s.: Hemizygopteron Zallesskiy 1955 NB01
                             |--Ditaxineuridae GE05
                             |--Permaeschna Martynov 1931 NB01 [Permaeschnidae GE05]
                             |--Polytaxineura Tillyard 1935 NB01 [Polytaxineuridae RP02]
                             |--Callimokaltaniidae RP02
                             `--Kaltanoneuridae RP02

*Type species of generic name indicated

==References==

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[NB01] Nel, A., O. Bethoux, G. Bechly, X. Martínez-Delclòs & F. Papier. 2001. The Permo-Triassic Odonatoptera of the “protodonate” grade (Insecta: Odonatoptera). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (N.S.) 37 (4): 501-525.

[R02] Rasnitsyn, A. P. 2002. Special features of the study of fossil insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 8-12. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[RP02] Rasnitsyn, A. P., & L. N. Pritykina. 2002. Superorder Libellulidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Odonata Fabricius, 1792. The dragonflies. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 97-104. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[Z02] Zherikhin, V. V. 2002. Ecological history of the terrestrial insects. In History of Insects (A. P. Rasnitsyn & D. L. J. Quicke, eds) pp. 331-388. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

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