Josia gigantea, copyright Gail Hampshire.

Belongs within: Macroheterocera.
Contains: Euteliidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae, Nolinae, Chloephorinae, Pygaerinae, Thaumetopoeinae, Heterocampinae, Notodontinae.

The Noctuoidea are a diverse group of moths characterised by the presence of metathoracic tympanal organs, usually with a large counter-tympanal cavity with a projecting hood at the base of the abdomen. The tympanum is directed ventrally in members of the Notodontidae and Oenosandridae but obliquely posteriorly in other families (Nielsen & Common 1991). The classification of the Noctuoidea has historically been chaotic but six well-supported clades were regarded as warranting family status by Zahiri et al. (2011). The basal families Notodontidae and Oenosandridae retain a trifid fore wing venation (with M2 arising about midway between M1 and M3) in contrast to the derived quadrifid venation (with M2 closer to M3 than M1) of Euteliidae, Noctuidae, Erebidae and Nolidae. However, the Australian Oenosandridae are associated with the quadrifid families by the possession of a posteriorly facing tympanal membrane in contrast to the ventrally facing tympanal membrane of Notodontidae.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Small to large; ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata absent; proboscis often strong, sometimes reduced or absent; maxillary palps very small, l–4-segmented or absent; fore wing without CuP; hind wing with frenulum, CuP absent, 1A+2A sometimes forming anal fork; metathorax with tympanal organs, rarely reduced or lost, tympanum directed ventrally or obliquely posteriorly; abdomen with basal counter-tympanal cavities, usually with prominent hood, with abdominal spiracle 1 either on anterior face (hood postspiracular) or at posteroventral angle (hood pre-spiracular). Eggs of upright type. Larva sometimes with dense secondary setae, crochets uniordinal, rarely biordinal, in a mesoseries.

<==Noctuoidea [Noctuae, Noctuites, Notodontoidea] GE05
    |  i. s.: Anthophila [Anthophilidae] WM66
    |           |--A. numida Lucas 1849 E12
    |           `--A. roseifascia WM66
    |         Strepsimanes Meyrick 1930 [Strepsimanidae, Strepsimaninae] FL05
    |         Kenguichardia ZK11
    |         Plagerepne ZK11
    |         Clytophylla ZK11
    |         Crebus odorus G20
    |--+--Oenosandridae ZK11
    |  |    |--Oenosandra Walker 1856 FL05
    |  |    |    `--O. boisduvalii NC91
    |  |    `--Discophlebia catocalina ZK11, NC91
    |  `--+--+--Euteliidae ZK11
    |     |  `--Noctuidae ZK11
    |     `--+--Erebidae ZK11
    |        `--Nolidae ZK11
    |             |  i. s.: Risoba Moore 1881 [Risobinae] FL05
    |             |         Collomena Möschler 1890 [Collomeninae] FL05
    |             |         Afrida Möschler 1886 [Afridinae] FL05
    |             |--Nolinae ZK11
    |             `--+--Chloephorinae ZK11
    |                `--+--Westermanniinae ZK11
    |                   |    |--Negeta sigmata ZK11
    |                   |    `--Westermannia Hübner 1821 FL05
    |                   `--+--Selepa molybdea ZK11
    |                      `--Eligma Hübner 1819 FL05 [Eligminae ZK11, Eligmini]
    |                           `--E. narcissus ZK11
    `--Notodontidae ZK11
         |  i. s.: Gallaba M03
         |         Schizura GE05
         |         Scea auriflamma GE05
         |         Lyces striata GE05
         |         Gangarides Moore 1866 [incl. Thermojana Yang in Yang & Chen 1995] NO08
         |           `--*Thermojana’ sinica Yang in Yang & Chen 1995 NO08
         |         Lephopteryx camelina P01
         |         Destolmia NC91
         |         Sorama NC91
         |         Antimima cryptica N91
         |         Cerurites wagneri RJ93
         |         Symmerista S96
         |           |--S. albifrons S96
         |           `--S. fulgens Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Edema audax Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Rosema Walker 1855 [Rosemini] FL05
         |           `--R. dolorosa Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Ichthyura rubida Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Blera peruda Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Cleapa psecas Druce 1901 D01a
         |         Rifargia nubila Druce 1901 D01b
         |         Macrurocampa marthesia S96
         |         Lophopteryx eumeta Druce 1900 D00
         |         Somera viridifusca D00
         |         Platychasma Butler 1881 [Platychasmatinae] FL05
         |         Hemiceras Guenée 1852 [Hemiceratinae] FL05
         |         Ceira Walker 1865 [Ceirinae] FL05
         |--+--Pygaerinae ZK11
         |  `--Dudusinae ZK11
         |       |  i. s.: Crinodes ZK11
         |       |           |--C. besckei ZK11
         |       |           `--C. minuta Druce 1900 D00
         |       |--Dudusini FL05
         |       |    |--Dudusa Walker 1865 FL05
         |       |    |    `--D. sphingiformis P01
         |       |    `--Tarsolepis Butler 1872 [Tarsolepidinae] FL05
         |       `--Scrancia Holland 1893 [Scranciini] FL05
         `--+--+--Thaumetopoeinae ZK11
            |  `--Phalera Hübner 1819 FL05 [Phaleridae, Phalerinae ZK11]
            |       |--P. bucephala (Linnaeus 1758) L-SSY04
            |       `--P. bucephaloides Ochsenheimer 1808 B08
            `--+--Heterocampinae ZK11
               `--+--Notodontinae ZK11
                  `--+--Nystaleinae ZK11
                     |    |--Nystalea Guenée 1852 FL05
                     |    |    `--N. striata ZK11
                     |    `--Notoplusia minuta KP19
                     `--Dioptinae [Dioptidae] ZK11
                          |--Scotura leucophleps ZK11
                          |--Dioptis Hübner 1818 FL05
                          |--Phryganidia RD77
                          |--Polypoetes nox Druce 1900 D00
                          `--Josia Hübner 1819 [Josiidae] FL05
                               |--J. gigantea GE05
                               `--J. tessmani GE05

*Type species of generic name indicated


[B08] Bálint, Z. 2008. Lepidoptera collections of historical importance in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 100: 17–35.

[D00] Druce, H. 1900. Descriptions of some new genera and species of Heterocera from tropical South America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 5: 507–527.

[D01a] Druce, H. 1901a. Descriptions of some new species of Heterocera. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 74–79.

[D01b] Druce, H. 1901b. Descriptions of some new species of Lepidoptera from east Africa and tropical America. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 432–444.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[FL05] Fibiger, M., & J. D. Lafontaine. 2005. A review of the higher classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera) with special reference to the Holarctic fauna. Esperiana 11: 7–92.

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[KP19] Kawahara, A. Y., D. Plotkin, M. Espeland, K. Meusemann, E. F. A. Toussaint, A. Donath, F. Gimnich, P. B. Frandsen, A. Zwick, M. dos Reis, J. R. Barber, R. S. Peters, S. Liu, X. Zhou, C. Mayer, L. Podsiadlowski, C. Storer, J. E. Yack, B. Misof & J. W. Breinholt. 2019. Phylogenomics reveals the evolutionary timing and pattern of butterflies and moths. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 116 (45): 22657–22663.

[L-SSY04] López-Sebastián, E., J. Selfa & J. Ylla. 2004. Primeros datos del parasitismo de Ooencyrtus pityocampae (Mercet, 1921) sobre Graellsia isabelae (Graells, 1849) en condiciones de laboratorio. Graellsia 60 (1): 121–123.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59–66.

[NO08] Nässig, W. A., & R. G. Oberprieler. 2008b. Errata et addenda. Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (2): 124.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[P01] Pável, J. 1901. Lepkék [Lepidopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 171–177. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[RD77] Richards, O. W., & R. G. Davies. 1977. Imms' General Textbook of Entomology 10th ed. vol. 2. Classification and Biology. Chapman and Hall: London.

[RJ93] Ross, A. J., & E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Arthropoda (Hexapoda; Insecta). In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 363–426. Chapman & Hall: London.

[S96] Smith, D. R. 1996. Trigonalyidae (Hymenoptera) in the eastern United States: seasonal flight activity, distribution, hosts. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (1): 109–118.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355–365.

[ZK11] Zahiri, R., I. J. Kitching, J. D. Lafontaine, M. Mutanen, L. Kaila, J. D. Holloway & N. Wahlberg. 2011. A new molecular phylogeny offers hope for a stable family level classification of the Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Zoologica Scripta 40 (2): 158–173.

Last updated: 24 April 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="">FoS</a> = FoS