Difflugiella oviformis, copyright Ralf Meisterfeld.

Belongs within: Monadofilosa.
Contains: Ebriacea, Phaeodarea.

The Thecofilosea are a lineage of mostly amoeboid protists, ancestrally with a robust extracellular theca (Adl et al. 2012).

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Usually with robust organic extracellular theca; ventral filose pseudopodia emerging from ventral groove; two cilia with divergent kinetosomes, may be secondarily lost or restricted to zoospores; ancestrally benthic gliding on posterior cilium only, but some secondarily planktonic swimmers which may have lost pseudopodia; theca with perforations for cilia and for pseudopodia; silica scales absent, but hollow silica endoskeleton sometimes present.

    |  i. s.: Ventricleftida AS12
    |           |--Ventrifissura AS12
    |           `--Verrucomonas AS12
    |         Ebriacea AS12
    |         Botuliforma AS12
    |         Mataza AS12
    |--Cryomonadida BM05
    |    |--Cryothecomonadidae [Protaspidae] BM05
    |    |    |--Cryothecomonas BM05
    |    |    |    |--C. aestivalis BM05
    |    |    |    `--C. longipes BM05
    |    |    `--Protaspa AS12 [incl. Protaspis Skuja 1939 (preoc. ICZN) AS12, C-S93]
    |    |         |--‘Protaspis’ glans Skuja 1939 S73
    |    |         `--‘Protaspis’ tanyopsis Norris 1961 S73
    |    `--Rhizaspididae AS12
    |         |--Rhizaspis Skuja 1948 C-S93
    |         `--Rhogostoma Bělař 1921 AS12, LT64
    |              `--*R. schuessleri Bělař 1921 [=Capsellina schuessleri] LT64
    `--Tectofilosida BM05
         |  i. s.: Volutellidae AS12
         |           |--Volutella Sudzuki 1979 C-SC03, G86
         |           |    `--V. cochlea Sudzuki 1979 G86
         |           `--Pseudovolutella Sudzuki 1979 AS12, G86
         |                `--P. iriomotensis Sudzuki 1979 G86
         |--Pseudodifflugiidae [Pseudodifflugiinae] C-SC03
         |    |--Pseudowailesella Sudzuki 1979 G86
         |    |    `--P. japonica Sudzuki 1979 G86
         |    |--Petalopella Loeblich & Tappan 1961 (see below for synonymy) LT64
         |    |    `--*P. diffluens (Claparède & Lachmann 1859) [=*Petalopus diffluens] LT64
         |    |--Pseudodifflugia Schlumberger 1845 G86
         |    |    |--*P. gracilis Schlumberger 1845 LT64 [incl. P. gracilis var. terricola LB90]
         |    |    `--P. andreevi Golemansky 1976 G86
         |    `--Difflugiella Cash 1904 G86
         |         |--*D. apiculata Cash 1904 LT64
         |         |--D. collum Chardez 1971 G86
         |         |--D. lamingerae Chardez 1977 G86
         |         |--D. oviformis [incl. D. oviformis var. fusca] LB90
         |         `--D. psammophila Golemansky 1970 G86
         `--+--Chlamydophryidae NB04
            |    |--Chlamydophrys Cienkowski 1876 LT64 [Chlamydophryinae]
            |    |    `--*C. stercorea Cienkowski 1876 LT64
            |    |--Capsellina Penard 1909 AS12, LT64
            |    |    `--*C. bryorum Penard 1909 LT64
            |    |--Lecythium Hertwig & Lesser 1874 AS12, LT64 (see below for synonymy)
            |    |    |--*L. hyalinum (Ehrenberg 1838) (see below for synonymy) LT64
            |    |    |--*Pamphagus’ mutabilis Bailey 1853 [=*Baileya mutabilis] LT64
            |    |    |--*Phonergates’ vorax Buck 1878 LT64
            |    |    `--*Troglodytes’ zoster Gabriel 1876 LT64
            |    |--Clypeolina Penard 1902 AS12, LT64
            |    |    `--*C. marginata Penard 1902 LT64
            |    |--Diaphorodon Archer 1869 AS12, LT64
            |    |    `--*D. mobile Archer 1869 LT64
            |    |--Leptochlamydophrys AS12
            |    `--Penardeugenia Deflandre in Deflandre-Rigaud 1958 AS12, LT64 (see below for synonymy)
            |         `--*P. bathybiotica (Penard 1904) [=Pamphagus bathybioticus, *Eugenia bathybiotica] LT64
            `--Phaeodarea NB04

Lecythium Hertwig & Lesser 1874 AS12, LT64 [incl. Baileya Averintsev in Schouteden 1906 LT64, Pamphagus Bailey 1853 non Thunberg 1815 LT64, Phonergates Buck 1878 non Stål 1853 LT64, Troglodytes Gabriel 1876 nec Vieillot 1807 nec Geoffroy 1812 LT64]

*Lecythium hyalinum (Ehrenberg 1838) [=Arcella hyalina, Pamphagus hyalinus; incl. Plagiophrys spherica] LT64

Penardeugenia Deflandre in Deflandre-Rigaud 1958 AS12, LT64 [=Eugenia Averintsev 1906 nec Gould 1855 nec Martens 1860 nec Robineau-Desvoidy 1863 nec Hall 1867 LT64]

Petalopella Loeblich & Tappan 1961 [=Petalopus Claparède & Lachmann 1859 nec Kirby & Spence 1828 nec Motschoulsky 1845] LT64

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[BM05] Bass, D., D. Moreira, P. López-García, S. Polet, E. E. Chao, S. von der Heyden, J. Pawlowski & T. Cavalier-Smith. 2005. Polyubiquitin insertions and the phylogeny of Cercozoa and Rhizaria. Protist 156: 149–161.

[C-S93] Cavalier-Smith, T. 1993. The protozoan phylum Opalozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 40 (5): 609–615.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny and classification of phylum Cercozoa. Protist 154: 341–358.

[G86] Golemansky, V. G. 1986. Rhizopoda: Testacea. In: Botosaneanu, L. (ed.) Stygofauna Mundi: A Faunistic, Distributional, and Ecological Synthesis of the World Fauna inhabiting Subterranean Waters (including the Marine Interstitial) pp. 5–16. E. J. Brill/Dr. W. Backhuys: Leiden.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 1. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[LB90] Lousier, J. D., & S. S. Bamforth. 1990. Soil protozoa. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 97–136. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[NB04] Nikolaev, S. I., C. Berney, J. F. Fahrni, I. Bolivar, S. Polet, A. P. Mylnikov, V. V. Aleshin, N. B. Petrov & J. Pawlowski. 2004. The twilight of Heliozoa and rise of Rhizaria, an emerging supergroup of amoeboid eukaryotes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 101 (21): 8066–8071.

[S73] Sournia, A. 1973. Catalogue des espèces et taxons infraspécifiques de Dinoflagellés marins actuels publiés depuis la révision de J. Schiller. I. Dinoflagellés libres. Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia 48: 1–92.

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