Girdle view of Corethron criophilum, copyright Wendy Kozlowski.

Belongs within: Ochrophyta.
Contains: Rhizosoleniaceae, Achnanthes, Cocconeis, Surirellaceae, Auliscus, Stephanodiscus, Eucentricophycidae, Actinodiscaceae, Melosiraceae, Bacillariophyceae, Mediophyceae.

The Diatomea, diatoms, are a group of mostly photosynthetic protists with a cell wall composed of a pair of siliceous valves.

Characters (from Adl et al. 2012): Vegetative cells cylindrical with a circular, elongate or multipolar cross-section, lacking any trace of cilia except as the sperm of centric lineages; cell wall complete, composed of tightly integrated silicified elements and comprised of two valves, one at each end of cell, with several girdle bands as hoops or segments covering cylindrical ‘girdle’ lying between valves; chloroplasts usually present, bounded by four membranes, and with lamellae of three thylakoids and a ring nucleoid (rarely multiple nucleoids); ciliated sperm cells bearing a single anterior cilium with a 9 + 0 axoneme and mastigonemes; life cycle diplontic and of unique pattern with slow size reduction over several years during the phase, caused by an unusual internal wall morphogenesis, alternating with rapid size restitution via a growth phase (auxospore) over several days.

<==Diatomea [Araphidineae, Bacillariophyta, Centricophyceae, Coscinophytina, Diatomeae, Discineae, Pennales] AS12
    |--+--Corethron [Corethrales, Corethrophycidae] C-SC06
    |  |    |--C. criophilum C-SC06
    |  |    `--C. valdiviae B26
    |  `--+--Eucentricophycidae C-SC06
    |     `--Actinodiscaceae C-SC06
    `--+--+--Aulacoseira distans C-SC06
       |  `--Melosiraceae C-SC06
       `--Bacillariophytina AS12
            |--Bacillariophyceae C-SC06
            `--Mediophyceae C-SC06

Diatomea incertae sedis:
  Rhizosoleniaceae RA05
  Streptotheca thamensis KI02
  Detonula DG01
    |--D. confervacea DG01
    `--D. cystifera B26
  Planothidium quadripunctatum (Oppenheim) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy) SV03
  Nanofrustulum shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Round, Hallenstein & Paasche 1999 (see below for synonymy) SV03
  Sellaphora seminulum [=Navicula seminulum] SV03
  Chamaepinnularia krookii [=Pinnularia krookii] SV03
  Achnanthidium SV03
    |--A. kryophilum SV03
    |--A. lanceolatum TaJ06
    |--A. minutissimum TaJ06
    |--A. oblongella ThJ06
    `--A. reidensis TaJ06
  Eucocconeis austriaca [=Achnanthes austriaca] SV03
  Pseudostaurosira perminuta SV03
  Staurophora (nom. cons.) C03
  Alveus marinus P98
  Dictyopyxis Ehrenberg 1844 FT93
  Stauroforma SV03
    |--S. exiguiformis SV03
    `--S. inermis Flower, Jones & Round 1996 SV03
  Muelleria SV03
    |--M. gibbula [=Navicula gibbula] SV03
    `--M. peraustralis (West & West) Spaulding & Stoermer 1997 SV03
  Luticola SV03
    |--L. murrayi (West & West) Mann 1990 SV03
    |--L. muticopsis (van Heurck) Mann 1990 SV03
    `--L. palaearctica SV03
  Craspedostauros SV03
    |--C. britannicus SV03
    |--C. indubitabilis SV03
    `--C. laevissimus (West & West) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy) SV03
  Diadesmis SV03
    |--D. arcuata SV03
    |--D. contenta [=Navicula contenta] SV03
    |--D. gallica Smith 1857 SV03
    |--D. implicata SV03
    `--D. perpusilla (Grunow) Mann 1990 [=Navicula gallica var. perpusilla] SV03
  Achnanthaceae [Achnanthoideae, Monoraphidineae] W61b
    |--Achnanthes SV03
    |--Cocconeis W61b
    |--Campyloneis Grun. 1862 W61b
    |    `--C. grevillei (Smith) Grun. 1868 [=Cocconeis grevillei Smith 1853] W61a
    `--Rhoicosphenia Grunow 1860 W61b
         |--R. curvata (Kützing) Grun. 1860 [=Gomphonema curvatum Kützing 1844] W61a
         |--R. flexa Giffen 1970 G75
         `--R. marina [=R. curvata f. marina] G75
  Psammothidium SV03
    |--P. abundans (Manguin) Bukhtiyarova & Round 1996 SV03
    |--P. chlidanos SV03
    |--P. daonense SV03
    |--P. germainii (Manguin) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes germainii] SV03
    |--P. helveticum SV03
    |--P. marginulatum SV03
    |--P. metakryophilum (Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 (see below for synonymy) SV03
    |--P. stauroneioides (Manguin) Bukhtiyarova 1996 [=P. stauroneioideum (l. c.)] SV03
    `--P. subatomoides SV03
  Brachysira ThJ06
    |--B. aponina TaJ06
    `--B. brebissonii ThJ06
  Camphylodiscus clypeus TaJ06
    |--C. c. var. clypeus TaJ06
    `--C. c. var. bicostata TaJ06
  Ctenophora pulchella TaJ06
  Entomoneis TaJ06
    |--E. alata TaJ06
    `--E. tenuistriata TaJ06
  Fallacia pygmaea TaJ06
  Surirellaceae W61b
  Tabularia tabulata TaJ06
  Tryblionella hungarica TaJ06
  Campylosira Grunow 1882 G75
    `--C. inane Giffen 1975 G75
  Anorthoneis Grunow 1867 G75
    `--A. eurystoma Cleve 1895 G75
  Odentella [Eupodiscaceae] RA05
    `--O. mobiliensis [=Biddulphia mobiliensis] RA05
  Auliscus W61b
  Eunotogramma Weisse 1854 G75
    |--E. marinum [=Smithiella marina] G75
    |--E. rostratum Hustedt 1955 G75
    `--E. weissii Ehr. 1854 CW59
         |--E. w. var. weissii CW59
         `--E. w. var. producta CW59
  Glyphodesmis Greville 1862 G75
    |--G. distans G75
    `--G. marginata CW59
  Opephora Petit 1888 G75
    |--O. gemmata (Grunow) Hustedt 1927-1964 G75
    |--O. martyi G75
    |--O. pacifica G75
    `--O. schwartzii G75
  Plagiotropis vitrea UPS98
  Cylindrotheca signata UPS98
  Scolioneis tumida UPS98
  Coscinosira polychorda B26
  Paralia sulcata B26
  Bacteriosira fragilis B26
  Cerataulina bergonii B26
  Leptocylindrus [Leptocylindraceae] RA05
    `--L. danicus RA05
  Stephanodiscus T92
  Anaulus Ehr. 1844 CW59
    `--A. mediterraneus CW59
  Rutilaria CW59
    |--R. epsilon Grev. 1863 CW59
    |--R. lanceolata CW59
    |--R. monile [=Pseudorutilaria monile] CW59
    |--R. pulchra A.S. 1893 CW59
    `--R. radiata CW59
  Stictodesmis Grev. 1863 CW59
    `--S. australis Grev. 1863 CW59
  Toxonidea Donk. 1858 CW59
    `--T. falcata Donk. 1858 CW59
  Denticella regia H04
  Asterolampra eximia H04
  Pyrgodiscus armatus H04
  Asteromphalus imbricatus H04
  Grovea pedalis H04
  Gephyria constricta H04
  Amphithetras elegans H04
  Arachnoidiscus AS12

Craspedostauros laevissimus (West & West) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Tropidoneis laevissima West & West 1911] SV03

Nanofrustulum shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Round, Hallenstein & Paasche 1999 [=Fragilaria shiloi Lee, Reimer & McEnery 1980, Pseudostaurosira shiloi (Lee, Reimer & McEnery) Hallegraeff & Burford 1996; incl. Opephora krumbeinii Witkowski, Witak & Stachura 1999, Fragilaria sopotensis Witkowski 1994] SV03

Planothidium quadripunctatum (Oppenheim) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes quadripunctata Oppenheim 1994] SV03

Psammothidium metakryophilum (Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt) Sabbe in Sabbe, Verleyen et al. 2003 [=Achnanthes metakryophila Lange-Bertalot & Schmidt in Schmidt et al. 1990] SV03

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AS12] Adl, S. M., A. G. B. Simpson, C. E. Lane, J. Lukeš, D. Bass, S. S. Bowser, M. W. Brown, F. Burki, M. Dunthorn, V. Hampl, A. Heiss, M. Hoppenrath, E. Lara, E. Le Gall, D. H. Lynn, H. McManus, E. A. D. Mitchell, S. E. Mozley-Stanridge, L. W. Parfrey, J. Pawlowski, S. Rueckert, L. Shadwick, C. L. Schoch, A. Smirnov & F. W. Spiegel. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59 (5): 429–493.

[B26] Bigelow, H. B. 1926. Plankton of the offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine. Bulletin of the Bureau of Fisheries 40 (2): 1–509.

[C-SC06] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2006. Phylogeny and megasystematics of phagotrophic heterokonts (kingdom Chromista). Journal of Molecular Evolution 62: 388–420.

[C03] Compère, P. 2003. Report of the Committee for Algae: 7. Taxon 52: 339–340.

[CW59] Crosby, L. H., & E. J. F. Wood. 1959. Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. II.—Normally epontic and benthic genera. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 86 (1): 1–58, pls 51–59.

[DG01] Daugbjerg, N., & L. Guillou. 2001. Phylogenetic analyses of Bolidophyceae (Heterokontophyta) using rbcL gene sequences support their sister group relationship to diatoms. Phycologia 40 (2): 153–161.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[G75] Giffen, M. H. 1975. An account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha Bay, Cape Province, South Africa. Botanica Marina 18: 71–95.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[KI02] Kawachi, M., I. Inouye, D. Honda, C. J. O’Kelly, J. C. Bailey, R. R. Bidigare & R. A. Andersen. 2002. The Pinguiophyceae classis nova, a new class of photosynthetic stramenopiles whose members produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Phycological Research 50: 31–47.

[P98] Prothero, D. R. 1998. Bringing Fossils to Life: An introduction to paleobiology. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[RA05] Rath, J., & S. P. Adhikary. 2005. A check list of algae from Chilika Lake, Orissa. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 47 (1–4): 101–114.

[SV03] Sabbe, K., E. Verleyen, D. A. Hodgson, K. Vanhoutte & W. Vyverman. 2003. Benthic diatom flora of freshwater and saline lakes in the Larsemann Hills and Rauer Islands, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science 15 (2): 227–248.

[TaJ06] Taukulis, F. E., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms as ecological indicators in lakes and streams of varying salinity from the wheatbelt region of Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (1): 17–25.

[T92] Theriot, E. 1992. Clusters, species concepts, and morphological evolution of diatoms. Systematic Biology 41 (2): 141–157.

[ThJ06] Thomas, E. J., & J. John. 2006. Diatoms and macroinvertebrates as biomonitors of mine-lakes in Collie, Western Australia. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 89 (3): 109–117.

[UPS98] Underwood, G. J. C., J. Phillips & K. Saunders. 1998. Distribution of estuarine benthic diatom species along salinity and nutrient gradients. European Journal of Phycology 33: 173–183.

[W61a] Wood, E. J. F. 1961a. Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. IV.—Descriptions of further sedentary species. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (4): 669–698.

[W61b] Wood, E. J. F. 1961b. Studies on Australian and New Zealand diatoms. V.—The Rawson Collection of recent diatoms. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand 88 (4): 699–712.

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