Dianthus

Carnation Dianthus caryophyllus, copyright Roula30.


Belongs within: Caryophyllaceae.

Dianthus, pinks and carnations, are a group of herbaceous plants native to Eurasia, Africa and North America that bear often pink flowers with divided edges to the petals.

Characters (from R. K. Rabeler & R. L. Hartman): Herbs, usually perennial (rarely annual or biennial), sometimes mat-forming. Taproots stout, rhizomes (when present) slender or stout. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, terete or angled. Leaves connate proximally into sheath, petiolate (basal leaves) or sessile; blade 1-veined, linear or oblong to ovate, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal, open cymes, dense bracteate clusters or heads, or flowers solitary; bracts paired, herbaceous to scarious, or absent; involucel bracteoles 1-3 pairs, herbaceous or scarious. Pedicels erect in fruit. Flowers: sepals connate proximally into tube, 10-22 mm, tube green or reddish, 20-60-veined, ± cylindric, terete, commissures between sepals absent, lobes green or reddish, 3-8-veined, triangular to lanceolate, shorter than tube, margins white or reddish, mostly scarious, apex acute or obtuse; petals often pink or red, sometimes white or purple, sometimes spotted or with darker center, clawed, auricles absent, coronal appendages absent, blade apex dentate or fimbriate to 1/2 of length; nectaries at filament bases; stamens 10, adnate with petals to carpophore; filaments distinct; staminodes absent; ovary 1-locular; styles 2, filiform, 0.7-6 mm, glabrous proximally; stigmas 2, linear along adaxial surface of styles, papillate (30×). Capsules ovoid to cylindric, opening by 4 teeth; carpophore present. Seeds 40-100+, blackish brown, shield-shaped, dorsiventrally compressed, papillose-striate to papillate, marginal wing absent, appendage absent; embryo central, straight. x = 15.

<==Dianthus
    |--D. allwoodii WFA00
    |--D. alpinus WFA00
    |--D. armeria D37
    |--D. bisignoni M55
    |--D. callizonus H09
    |--D. carthusianorum [incl. D. atrorubens] C55a
    |--D. caryophyllus Linnaeus 1753 CD07
    |--D. catalaunicus C74
    |--D. deltoides D37
    |--D. fruticosus S98
    |    |--D. f. ssp. fruticosus S98
    |    |--D. f. ssp. amorginus S98
    |    `--D. f. ssp. occidentalis Y98
    |--D. glacialis H09
    |    |--D. g. ssp. glacialis H09
    |    `--D. g. ssp. gelidus H09
    |--D. henteri H09
    |--D. pinifolius KB96
    |    |--D. p. ssp. pinifolius KB96
    |    `--D. p. ssp. lilacinus KB96
    |--D. plumarius C55b
    `--D. tenuifolius H09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[D37] Dobzhansky, T. 1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia University Press: New York.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[KB96] Konstantinou, M., & D. Babalonas. 1996. Metal uptake by Caryophyllaceae species from metalliferous soils in northern Greece. Plant Systematics and Evolution 203: 1–10.

[M55] Mertens, R. 1955. Die Mauereidechsen der Liparischen Inseln, gesammelt von Dr. Antonino Trischitta. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (1–2): 25–40.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[WFA00] Wurr, D. C. E., J. R. Fellows & L. Andrews. 2000. The effects of temperature and daylength on flower initiation and development in Dianthus allwoodii and Dianthus alpinus. Scientia Horticulturae 86: 57–70.

[Y98] Yannitsaros, A. 1998. Additions to the flora of Kithira (Greece) I. Willdenowia 28: 77–94.

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