Umbilicaria leiocarpa, copyright Jason Hollinger.

Belongs within: Lecanoromycetes.
Contains: Umbilicaria section Glabrae, Umbilicaria section Polymorphae, Umbilicaria secton Velleae.

Umbilicaria, rock tripe, is a cosmopolitan genus of saxicolous lichens that derive their name from their attachment to the substrate by a distinct 'navel'.

Characters (from Frey 1933): Thallus foliaceous, navel simple, thin or often divided into several strands, with the base very firmly attached, upper surface smooth or cracked-areolate, often with scaly or sheet-like attachments or protruding ribs. Apothecia sessile on upper surface, occasionally slightly sunk or pressed, often top-shaped, short-stalked, black. Underside of the thallus smooth and hairless or cracked-areolate, with or without rhizines. Rhizines simple or branched or warty, also often reticulate or pitted and with anastomosing discontinuous ribs. More or less radially arranged bars often extending outward from navel. Thallus layered, upper crust usually solid (exceptionally thin), forming a palisade plectenchyma, paraplectenchyma or an almost amorphous-appearing tissue. Gonidia Cytococcus, usually in a continuous or more or less regularly interrupted zone. Hyphae of gonidial zone loose, rarely fused like the rind. Central mass usually loose, rarely dense; lower crust usually similar to top layer, rhizines mostly similarly textured to underside of thallus. Apothecia always without gonidia, often quite black inside or at least partly dark, hypothecium usually at least brownish, hymenium often with a tendency to split. Spores unicellular and hyaline, or 2- to multicellular (forming a brick-like arrangement), hyaline or partially brown. Pycnidia sunk in thallus, but alwayswith a clear, point-like, black crown, pitcher-shaped or pear-shaped, often quite strongly broadened at the base.

Umbilicaria Hoffmann ex Linnaeus 1891 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |--U. subg. Gyrophora Endlich 1836 F33
    |    |--U. sect. Agyrophora Nylander 1878 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |    |--U. cinerascens (Arnold) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |    |    |--U. c. f. cinerascens F33
    |    |    |    `--U. c. f. laciniata Frey 1933 non Lichen corneus var. laciniatus Retzius 1779 F33
    |    |    |--U. laevis (Schaerer) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |    |--U. leiocarpa (de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |    |--U. microphylla (Laurer) Massal. 1852 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |    |--U. reticulata F33 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |    |--U. r. f. reticulata F33
    |    |    |    |--U. r. f. maxima F33
    |    |    |    |--U. r. f. perforata F33
    |    |    |    `--U. r. f. typica F33
    |    |    |--U. rigida (Du Rietz) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora rigida Du Rietz 1925] F33
    |    |    |    |--U. r. var. rigida F33
    |    |    |    `--U. r. var. discissa F33
    |    |    `--U. subglabra  (Nylander) Harm. 1910 [=Gyrophora subglabra Nylander 1896] F33
    |    |         |--U. s. var. subglabra F33
    |    |         |--U. s. var. pallens (Nylander) Frey 1933 (see below for synonymy) F33
    |    |         `--U. s. var. schmidtii Frey 1933 F33
    |    |--U. sect. Glabrae F33
    |    |--U. sect. Polymorphae F33
    |    `--U. sect. Velleae F33
    `--U. subg. Gyrophoropsis (Elenkin & Sav.) Zahlbr. 1927 [=Gyrophoropsis Elenkin & Sav. 1911] F33
         |--U. cinereorufescens (Schaerer) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |--U. crustulosa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
         |    |--U. c. var. crustulosa F33
         |    `--U. c. var. badiofusca Frey 1933 F33
         |--U. depressa (Acharius) Duby 1830 [=Gyrophora crustulosa var. depressa Acharius 1810] F33
         |--U. ruebeliana (DR. & Frey) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora ruebeliana DR. & Frey 1929] F33
         |    |--U. r. f. ruebeliana F33
         |    `--U. r. f. rhizinosa Frey 1933 F33
         `--U. spodochroa (Acharius) Frey 1931 (see below for synonymy) F33
              |--U. s. var. spodochroa F33
              `--U. s. var. lapponica Frey 1933 F33

Umbilicaria incertae sedis:
  U. angulata F33
  U. calvescens F33
  U. dichroa F33
  U. esculenta F33
  U. haplocarpa F33
  U. krempelhuberi F33
  U. mammulata JK06
  U. membranacea F33
  U. muehlenbergii F33
  U. nanella Frey & Poelt 1977 S03
  U. pennsylvanica F33
  U. phaea F33
  U. semitensis F33
  U. yunnana F33

Umbilicaria Hoffmann ex Linnaeus 1891 [incl. Gyrophora Acharius 1803; Gyrophoraceae, Umbilicariaceae, Umbilicariales] F33

Umbilicaria sect. Agyrophora Nylander 1878 [=Gyrophora sect. Agyrophora (Nylander) Zahlbr. 1906; incl. U. sect. Anthracinae Frey 1931] F33

Umbilicaria cinerascens (Arnold) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora cinerascens Arnold 1875, U. polyphylla var. cinerascens (Arnold) Wain. 1899] F33

Umbilicaria laevis (Schaerer) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora atropruniosa var. laevis Schaerer 1848, G. laevis (Schaerer) Du Rietz 1925, Umbilicaria anthracina var. laevis (Schaerer) Schaerer 1850; incl. U. anthracina var. laevis f. nuda Schaere 1850] F33

Umbilicaria leiocarpa (de Candolle in de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805) Frey 1931 [=Gyrophora leiocarpa (de Candolle) Du Rietz 1925; incl. G. anthracina Körb. 1855, Umbilicaria atropruinosa Schaerer 1823, G. atropruinosa var. tessellata Schaerer 1818, U. anthracina var. tessellata (Schaerer) Schaerer 1850, U. atropruinosa var. tessellata (Schaerer) Fries 1831] F33

Umbilicaria microphylla (Laurer) Massal. 1852 [=U. atropruinosa var. microphylla Laurer 1832, Gyrophora anthracina var. microphylla (Laurer) Jatta 1911, G. microphylla (Laurer) Arnold 1878, Umbilicaria anthracina var. microphylla (Laurer) Schaerer 1850, U. cinerascens var. microphylla (Laurer) Stizenb. 1882; incl. Gyrophora microphylloides Zahlbr. 1927] F33

Umbilicaria reticulata F33 [=Gyrophora polymorpha var. reticulata Schaerer 1818 F33, G. anthracina var. reticulata (Schaerer) Rabenhorst 1859 F33, G. reticulata (Schaerer) Fries 1871 F33, Lecidea atropruinosa var. reticulata (Schaerer) Schaerer 1828 F33, Umbilicaria anthracina var. reticulata (Schaerer) Tuck. 1848 F33, U. atropruinosa var. reticulata (Schaerer) Fries 1831 F33, U. tessellata var. reticulata (Schaerer) Duby 1830 F33; incl. Lichen decussatus Vill. 1789 F33, Gyrophora decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr. 1927 F33, Umbilicaria decussata C74, G. discolor Fries 1867 F33, U. ptychophora Nylander 1869 F33]

Umbilicaria subglabra var. pallens (Nylander) Frey 1933 [=U. atropruinosa var. pallens Nylander 1864, U. cinerascens var. pallens (Nylander) Nylander 1869] F33

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 224 pls.

[F33] Frey, E. 1933. Cladoniaceae (unter Ausschluss der Gattung Cladonia), Umbilicariaceae. In: Die Flechten (Dr. L. Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamenflora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz vol. 9 sect. 4 pt 1. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft M. B. H.: Leipzig (reprinted 1971. Johnson Reprint Corporation: New York).

[JK06] James, T. Y., F. Kauff, C. L. Schoch, P. B. Matheny, V. Hofstetter, C. J. Cox, G. Celio, C. Gueidan, E. Fraker, J. Miadlikowska, H. T. Lumbsch, A. Rauhut, V. Reeb, A. E. Arnold, A. Amtoft, J. E. Stajich, K. Hosaka, G.-H. Sung, D. Johnson, B. O'Rourke, M. Crockett, M. Binder, J. M. Curtis, J. C. Slot, Z. Wang, A. W. Wilson, A. Schüßler, J. E. Longcore, K. O'Donnell, S. Mozley-Standridge, D. Porter, P. M. Letcher, M. J. Powell, J. W. Taylor, M. M. White, G. W. Griffith, D. R. Davies, R. A. Humber, J. B. Morton, J. Sugiyama, A. Y. Rossman, J. D. Rogers, D. H. Pfister, D. Hewitt, K. Hansen, S. Hambleton, R. A. Shoemaker, J. Kohlmeyer, B. Volkmann-Kohlmeyer, R. A. Spotts, M. Serdani, P. W. Crous, K. W. Hughes, K. Matsuura, E. Langer, G. Langer, W. A. Untereiner, R. Lücking, B. Büdel, D. M. Geiser, A. Aptroot, P. Diederich, I. Schmitt, M. Schultz, R. Yahr, D. S. Hibbett, F. Lutzoni, D. J. McLaughlin, J. W. Spatafora & R. Vilgalys. 2006. Reconstructing the early evolution of Fungi using a six-gene phylogeny. Nature 443: 818–822.

[S03] Sinha, G. P. 2003. Additions to the lichen flora of India from Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45 (1–4): 221–224.

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