Calyx of Anthemiphyllia dentata, from here.

Belongs within: Cnidaria.
Contains: Actiniaria, Antipatharia, Zoanthidea, Pectiniidae, Merulinidae, Faviina, Caryophylliina, Dendrophylliidae, Fungiina, Astrocoeniina, Stylophyllidae.

The Hexacorallia are a major group of cnidarians including the stony corals, sea anemones and related taxa. Most species have hexamerous symmetry, though some are octomerous or decamerous. The group is more reliably characterised by the presence of spirocysts, cnidae with a single-walled capsule and a tubule composed of tiny entangling subthreads (Daly et al. 2007). Subgroups of the Hexacorallia include the Ceriantharia, which are solitary, elongate polyps that live burrowed into sediment and contained within a flexible tube constructed from discharged cnidae and mucus (Daly et al. 2007).

<==Hexacorallia [Ceriantipatharia]
    |--Ceriantharia DB07
    |    |--Isarachnanthus RB14 [Arachnanthidae DB07, Penicillaria]
    |    `--Spirularia DB07
    |         |--Botrucnidiferidae DB07
    |         |    |--Botruanthus DB07
    |         |    `--Botrucnidifer DB07
    |         `--Cerianthidae DB07
    |              |--Cerianthus filiformis BH88
    |              |--Ceriantheomorphe brasiliensis RB14
    |              `--Pachycerianthus RB14
    `--+--Actiniaria RB14
       `--+--+--Antipatharia RB14
          |  `--+--Zoanthidea RB14
          |     `--Relicanthus Rodríguez & Daly in Rodríguez, Barbeitos et al. 2014 [Relicanthidae] RB14
          |          `--*R. daphneae [=Boloceroides daphneae] RB14
          `--+--Corallimorpharia RB14
             |    |--Corallimorphus [Corallimorphidae] RB14
             |    |    `--C. profundus RB14
             |    |--Discosomatidae DB07
             |    |--Ricordea H94 [Ricordeidae DB07]
             |    |    `--R. florida H94
             |    |--Sideractiidae DB07
             |    `--Corynactis [Corynactinidae] RB14
             |         |--C. californic MH96
             |         `--C. viridis RB14
             `--Scleractinia [Madreporaria] RB14
                  |  i. s.: Microsolena HS02
                  |         Discocyathus Milne Edwards & Haime 1848 SR02
                  |         Schizophyllum fissilis Pourtalès 1874 SR02
                  |         Palaeomussa Alloiteau 1952 SR02
                  |         Vaughanella SR02
                  |         Ceratotrochus magnaghii SR02
                  |         Polycyathus muellerae (Abel 1959) S00
                  |         Astraeomorpha Reuss 1854 CS04
                  |         Pseudoastraeopora Russo 1979 SR01
                  |           `--P. hortensis (Oppenheim 1900) SR01
                  |         Agathelia Reuss 1854 SR01
                  |         Stylohelia de Fromentel 1861 SR01
                  |         Bracthelia Beauvais & Beauvais 1975 SR01
                  |         Palaeohelia albiensis Beauvais 1982 SR01
                  |         Etallonasteria minima (Étallon 1864) SR01
                  |         Paretallonia SR01
                  |         Orbicillidae PR72
                  |         Eupsammidae PR72
                  |         Pectiniidae M09
                  |         Euphyllidae M09
                  |           |--Physogyra lichtensteini (Milne Edwards & Haime 1851) M09
                  |           |--Plerogyra sinuosa (Dana 1846) M09
                  |           `--Euphyllia M09
                  |                |--E. ancora Veron & Pichon 1980 M09
                  |                |--E. cristata Chevalier 1971 M09
                  |                |--E. glabrescens (Chamisso & Eysenhardt 1821) M09
                  |                `--E. striata H04
                  |         Merulinidae M09
                  |         Solenosmilia variabilis MG-H11
                  |         Hoplangia durotrix Gosse 1860 S00
                  |         Diaseris S00
                  |           |--D. distorta S00
                  |           `--D. fragilis S00
                  |         Retiophyllia frechi S00
                  |         Manacina mayori SC62
                  |         Fungiacyathus MG-H11 [Fungiacyathidae DB07]
                  |           |--F. crispus (Pourtalès 1871) C77
                  |           |--F. fragilis Sars 1872 MG-H11
                  |           |--F. marenzelleri RB14
                  |           `--F. stephanus (Alcock 1893) MG-H11
                  |         Trachyphylliidae DB07
                  |--Faviina SR02
                  |--Caryophylliina RS01
                  |--Dendrophylliidae C77
                  |--Fungiina C77
                  |--Astrocoeniina C77
                  |--Rhipidogyrina SR01
                  |    |--Aulastraeopora deangelisi Prever 1909 SR01
                  |    |--Preverastraea diplothecata (Hackemesser 1936) SR01
                  |    |--Bodeurina languedociensis Beauvais 1980 SR01
                  |    `--Aplosmilia coalescens Eliášová 1973 SR01
                  `--+--Stylophyllina SR02
                     |    |--Stylophyllidae SR02
                     |    `--Gigantostylis [Gigantostyliidae] SR02
                     |         `--G. epigonus Frech 1890 SR02
                     `--+--Thecocyathidae SR07
                        |    |  i. s.: ‘Microsmilia’ matheyi Koby 1888 S00
                        |    `--Thecocyathus tintinabulum Goldfuss 1826 SR02
                        `--Anthemiphyllia [Anthemiphylliidae] SR02
                             |--A. catinata Wells 1907 SR02
                             |--A. dentata Alcock 1902 SR02
                             |--A. patera De Pourtalès 1878 SR02
                             `--A. spinifera SR02

Hexacorallia incertae sedis:
  Caninia G02
    |--C. cornucopiae G02
    `--C. dorlodoti ZP86
  Leolasma G02
  Streptelasmatida G02
    |--Domophyllum G02
    |--Acrophyllum oneidaense G02, N79
    |--Compressiphyllum G02
    |--Lobocorallium trilobatum G02
    |--Densigrewingkia G02
    `--Borelasma G02
  Aulosmilia SR02
  Hughaea Lamouroux 1821 RL03
    `--H. caribaeorum Duchassaing 1850 RL03
  Maeandrina filograna H04
  Lophoseris H04
    |--L. divaricata H04
    `--L. frondifera H04
  Tridacophyllia lactuca H04
  Lithophyllia lacera H04
  Astraea H04
    |--A. expansa H04
    `--A. magnifica H04
  Pterogyra laxa H04
  Numidiaphyllidae G02
  Kilbuchophyllidae G02

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BH88] Boxshall, G. A., & A. G. Humes. 1988. A new genus of Lichomolgidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) associated with a phoronid in Hong Kong. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Zoology Series 54 (6): 301–307.

[C77] Cairns, S. D. 1977. Stony corals. I. Caryophylliina and Dendrophylliina (Anthozoa: Scleractinia). Memoirs of the Hourglass Cruises 3 (4): 1–27.

[CS04] Carter, J. G., & G. D. Stanley Jr. 2004. Late Triassic gastrochaenid and lithophaginid borings (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from Nevada (USA) and Austria. Journal of Paleontology 78 (1): 230–234.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[G02] Gudo, M. 2002. Soft body reconstructions of Palaeozoic corals: Implications for the system of Anthozoa (Coelenterata). Lethaia 35: 328–344.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HS02] Höfling, R., & R. W. Scott. 2002. Early and Mid-Cretaceous buildups. SEPM Special Publication 72: 521–548.

[H94] Humes, A. G. 1994. Two species of Paramolgus (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Lichomolgidae) associated with the scleractinian Pavona in New Caledonia with a key to the females of Paramolgus. Beaufortia 44 (1): 1–9.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[M09] McKinney, D. 2009. A survey of the scleractinian corals at Mermaid, Scott, and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 105–143.

[MH96] Miller, S. A., & J. P. Harley. 1996. Zoology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).

[N79] Norris, A. W. 1979. Devonian in the Western Hemisphere. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A218–A253. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[PR72] Powers, D. A., & F. J. Rohlf. 1972. A numerical taxonomic study of Caribbean and Hawaiian reef corals. Systematic Zoology 21 (1): 53–64.

[RB14] Rodríguez, E., M. S. Barbeitos, M. R. Brugler, L. M. Crowley, A. Grajales, L. Gusmão, V. Häussermann, A. Reft & M. Daly. 2014. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. PLoS One 9 (5): e96998.

[RS01] Roniewicz, E., & J. Stolarski. 2001. Triassic roots of the amphiastraeid scleractinian corals. Journal of Paleontology 75 (1): 34–45.

[RL03] Ryland, J. S., & J. E. Lancaster. 2003. Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 407–428.

[SC62] Starck, W. A., II & W. R. Courtenay Jr. 1962. Chorististium eukrines, a new serranid fish from Florida, with notes on related species. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 159–168.

[S00] Stolarski, J. 2000. Origin and phylogeny of Guyniidae (Scleractinia) in the light of microstructural data. Lethaia 33: 13–38.

[SR01] Stolarski, J., & A. Russo. 2001. Evolution of the post-Triassic pachythecaliine corals. Bulletin of the Biological Society of Washington 10: 242–256.

[SR02] Stolarski, J., & A. Russo. 2002. Microstructural diversity of the stylophyllid (Scleractinia) skeleton. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 47 (4): 651–666.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta, Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

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