Stichopus chloronotus, copyright Julien Bidet.

Belongs within: Holothuroidea.
Contains: Holothuria.

The Aspidochirotida are a group of sea cucumbers with a bilaterally symmetrical body plan in which the dorsal tube feet are modified into papillae or warts. Members of this group include the living families Synallactidae, Holothuriidae and Stichopodidae, and most members of the fossil form-family Stichopitidae (Pawson 1966).

    |  i. s.: Sporadipus botellus H04
    |--Synallactidae MG-H11
    |    |--Synallactes B01
    |    |--Stichopitella Mostler 1969 B01
    |    |--Pseudostichopus hyalegerus (Sluiter 1901) MG-H11
    |    |--Bracchiothuria Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |    |    `--*B. ancora Boczarowski 2001 B01
    |    |--Paelopatides MG-H11
    |    |    |--P. aspera H04
    |    |    `--P. quadridens Heding 1940 MG-H11
    |    `--Mesothuria Ludwig 1894 B01
    |         |--M. intestinalis [=Holothuria intestinalis] BK77
    |         `--M. marginata Sluiter 1901 MG-H11
    |--Holothuriidae MG-H11
    |    |--Microthele F67
    |    |--Pearsonothuria graeffei (Semper 1868) BM09
    |    |--Holothuria MG-H11
    |    |--Protholothuria Giebel 1857 FE66
    |    |    `--*P. armata Giebel 1857 FE66
    |    |--Bohadschia BM09
    |    |    |--B. argus Jaeger 1833 BM09
    |    |    `--B. marmorata Jaeger 1833 BM09
    |    |--Labidodemas BM09
    |    |    |--L. pertinax (Ludwig 1875) BM09
    |    |    `--L. semperianum Selenka 1867 BM09
    |    `--Actinopyga BM09
    |         |--A. difficilis D49
    |         |--A. mauritiana (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) BM09
    |         `--A. miliaris (Quoy & Gaimard 1833) BM09
    |--Stichopodidae P66
    |    |--Parastichopus californicus BK77 [=Holothuria californica BK77, Stichopus californicus F67]
    |    |--Thelenota BM09
    |    |    |--T. ananas (Jaeger 1833) BM09
    |    |    |--T. anax Clark 1921 BM09
    |    |    |--T. atra H04
    |    |    `--T. rubralineata CH97
    |    `--Stichopus BM09
    |         |--S. chloronotus Brandt 1835 BM09
    |         |--S. herrmanni Semper 1868 BM09
    |         |--S. horrens Selenka 1867 BM09
    |         |--S. japonicus GD00
    |         |--S. moebii H04
    |         |--S. mollis D49
    |         |--S. murrayi H04
    |         |--S. regalus D49
    |         `--S. tremulus [=Holothuria tremula] BK77
    `--Stichopitidae [Rhabdorotiformidae] P66
         |--Stichopites Deflandre-Rigaud 1953 [incl. Prostichopus Frentzen 1964] FE66
         |    `--*S. mortenseni Deflandre-Rigaud 1953 FE66
         |--Parvispina Kornicker & Imbrie 1958 FE66
         |    |--*P. spinosa (Frizzell & Exline 1956) [=Stichopites spinosus] FE66
         |    |--P. harpago FE66
         |    `--P. subsymmetrica FE66
         |--Cucumarites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 [incl. Procucumaria Frentzen 1964] FE66
         |    |--*C. feifeli (Mortensen 1937) [=Cucumaria feifeli] FE66
         |    |--‘Eocaudina’ mortenseni Frizzell & Exline 1956 FE66
         |    `--C. solidus FE66
         |--Ornaticannula Deflandre-Rigaud 1961 FE66
         |    |--*O. bonheurei Deflandre-Rigaud 1961 FE66
         |    |--O. micralcyonarites FE66
         |    `--O. tesseyrei FE66
         |--Rhabdotites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 (see below for synonymy) FE66
         |    |--*R. mortenseni Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 FE66
         |    |--R. bifidus FE66
         |    `--R. dorsetensis FE66
         `--Uncinulina Terquem 1862 [incl. Ambulacrites Rioult 1960] FE66
              |--*U. polymorpha Terquem 1862 FE66
              |--U. angulata FE66
              |--U. arcuata FE66
              |--U. lunata FE66
              |--U. subrecta FE66
              `--U. terquemi FE66

Rhabdotites Deflandre-Rigaud 1952 [incl. Chiridotella Deflandre-Rigaud 1961, Chirobaculus Frentzen 1964] FE66

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BK77] Barel, C. D. N., & P. G. N. Kramers. 1977. A survey of the echinoderm associates of the north-east Atlantic area. Zoologische Verhandelingen 156: 1–159.

[B01] Boczarowski, A. 2001. Isolated sclerites of Devonian non-pelmatozoan echinoderms. Palaeontologia Polonica 59: 1–219.

[BM09] Bryce, C., & L. Marsh. 2009. Echinodermata (Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea) of Mermaid (Rowley Shoals), Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 209–220.

[CH97] Castro, P., & M. E. Huber. 1997. Marine Biology 2nd ed. WCB McGraw-Hill: Boston.

[D49] Dawbin, W. H. 1949. Auto-evisceration and the regeneration of viscera in the holothurian Stichopus mollis Hutton. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 77 (4): 497–523.

[F67] Fell, H. B. 1967. Echinoderm ontogeny. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa—Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S60–S85. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[FE66] Frizzell, D. L., & H. Exline. 1966. Holothuroidea—fossil record. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U646–U672. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

[GD00] Giribet, G., D. L. Distel, M. Polz, W. Sterrer & W. C. Wheeler. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology 49: 539–562.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[P66] Pawson, D. L. 1966. Phylogeny and evolution of holothuroids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on invertebrate Paleontology pt U. Echinodermata 3 vol. 2 pp. U641–U646. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas Press.

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