Graneledone boreopacifica, from NOAA/MBARI.

Belongs within: Octopoda.
Contains: Benthoctopus, Octopus.

The Octopodidae is a diverse group of benthic octopuses, including the majority of familiar octopus species. Suckers on the arms are biserial in Octopodinae and Bathypolypodinae but uniserial in the deep-sea Graneledoninae (O'Shea 1999).

Characters (from O'Shea 1999): Body muscular to gelatinous; suckers uniserial or biserial; radula heterodont, occasionally homodont; digestive gland anterior to stomach and caecum; hectocotylised arm not autotomised at maturity; mantle-locking apparatus absent; shell vestige occasionally present as stylets in mantle; ink sac present or absent; light organs absent.

<==Octopodidae [Heteroglossa, Octopodoidea]
    |  i. s.: Megaleledone O99
    |         Hapalochlaena O99
    |         Pteroctopus tetracirrus O99, PP64
    |         Cistopus O99
    |         Vosseledone H88
    |         Scaegurus MG-H11
    |--Bathypolypodinae O99
    |    |--Benthoctopus O99
    |    |--Grimpella thaumastocheir O99
    |    `--Bathypolypus O99
    |         |--B. arcticus O99
    |         |--B. faeroensis (Russell 1909) O99
    |         `--B. spondalis S72
    |--Eledone [Eledoninae] O99
    |    |  i. s.: E. caparti Adam 1950 H88
    |    |         E. cirrhosa (Lamarck 1798) H88
    |    |         E. gaucha Haimovici 1988 H88
    |    |         E. massyae Voss 1964 H88
    |    |         E. palari Lu & Stranks 1991 MG-H11
    |    |         E. thysanophora Voss 1962 H88
    |    |--E. (Eledone) moschata (Lamarck 1798) G20, H88
    |    `--E. (Ocithoe) G20
    |         |--E. (O.) antiquorum G20
    |         `--E. (O.) cranchii G20
    |--Octopodinae O99
    |    |--Octopus O99
    |    |--Ameloctopus Norman 1992 O99
    |    |--Pinnoctopus d’Orbigny 1845 O99 (see below for synonymy)
    |    |    |--*P. cordiformis (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) (see below for synonymy) O99
    |    |    |--‘Robsonella’ australis (Hoyle 1885) P61
    |    |    |--‘Octopus fontanianus’ Robson 1929 (see below for synonymy) O99
    |    |    `--P. kermadecensis (Berry 1914) [=Polypus kermadecensis] O99
    |    `--Enteroctopus Gould 1852 O99
    |         |--*E. megalocyathus Gould 1852 O99
    |         |--E. dofleini [=Octopus dofleini] O99
    |         |--E. magnificus O99
    |         `--E. zealandicus (Benham 1944) [=Paroctopus zealandicus] O99
    `--Graneledoninae [Pareledoninae] O99
         |--Pareledone O99
         |--Bentheledone albida O99
         |--Velodona togata O99
         |--Thaumeledone Robson 1930 O99
         |    |--*T. brevis (Hoyle 1885) [=Eledone brevis] O99
         |    |--T. gunteri O99
         |    |--T. marshalli O’Shea 1999 O99
         |    `--T. zeiss O’Shea 1999 O99
         `--Graneledone Joubin 1918 O99
              |--*G. verrucosa (Verrill 1881) [=Eledone verrucosa, Moschites verrucosa] O99
              |    |--G. v. verrucosa O99
              |    `--G. v. media Joubin 1918 O99
              |--G. antarctica Voss 1976 O99
              |--G. boreopacifica O99
              |--G. challengeri (Berry 1916) (see below for synonymy) O99
              |--G. macrotyla O99
              |--G. pacifica Voss & Pearcy 1990 O99
              `--G. taniwha O’Shea 1999 O99
                   |--G. t. taniwha O99
                   `--G. t. kubodera O’Shea 1999 O99

Graneledone challengeri (Berry 1916) [=Moschites challengeri, Eledone challengeri, M. verrucosa var. challengeri] O99

‘Octopus fontanianus’ Robson 1929 non d’Orbigny 1835 [=*Joubinia fontanianus, *Robsonella fontanianus] O99

Pinnoctopus d’Orbigny 1845 O99 [incl. Callistoctopus O99, Joubinia Robson 1930 (preoc.) O99, Macroctopus Robson 1928 O99, P61, Robsonella Adam 1938 O99]

*Pinnoctopus cordiformis (Quoy & Gaimard 1832) [=Octopus cordiformis; incl. O. (Macroctopus) communis Park 1885, Polypus communis, O. flindersi Cotton 1932, O. maorum Hutton 1880, *Macroctopus maorum, Polypus maorum] O99

*Type species of generic name indicated


[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: N├╝rnberg.

[H88] Haimovici, M. 1988. Eledone gaucha, a new species of eledonid octopod (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae) from southern Brazil. Nautilus 102 (2): 82–87.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O99] O’Shea, S. 1999. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Octopoda (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 112: 1–280.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

[S72] Stunkard, H. W. 1972. Clarification of taxonomy in the Mesozoa. Systematic Zoology 21 (2): 210–214.

Last updated: 18 November 2021.

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