Antipathella subpinnata, from here.

Belongs within: Hexacorallia.
Contains: Myriopathes.

The Antipatharia, black corals, are a group of colonial cnidarians with a proteinaceous skeleton found primarily in deeper waters.

See also: Antipatharia: the black corals.

Characters (from Daly et al. 2007): Noncalcareous, colonial, with a spiny, proteinaceous skeleton (corallum) that can be unbranched and wire-like or simply to complexly dendritic; skeleton secreted by axial epithelial tissue of polyps in concentric layers around a small central hollow core. Polyps each usually no more than a few millimeters in diameter (maximum size about 1 cm in diameter), possessing six simple tentacles, six primary mesenteries, and zero, four, or six secondary mesenteries.

    |  i. s.: Stylopathidae DB07
    |--+--Cladopathidae DB07
    |  |    |--Cladopathes Brook 1889 [Cladopathinae] O01
    |  |    |--Sibopathes van Pesch 1914 [Sibopathinae] O01
    |  |    |--Hexapathes Kinoshita 1910 [Hexapathinae] O01
    |  |    |--Chrysopathes formosa RB14
    |  |    `--Trissopathes pseudotristicha RB14
    |  `--Schizopathidae DB07
    |       |--Schizopathes Brook 1889 [Schizopathinae] O01
    |       |--Bathypathes Brook 1889 O01
    |       |--Taxipathes Brook 1889 O01
    |       |--Parantipathes Brook 1889 O01 [Parantipathinae DB07]
    |       |    |--P. helicostricha Opresko 1999 MG-H11
    |       |    `--P. hirondelle RB14
    |       |--Dendrobathypathes boutillieri RB14
    |       `--Stauropathes punctata RB14
    |--+--Leiopathes RB14 [Leiopathidae DB07]
    |  |    `--L. glaberrima RB14
    |  `--Antipathidae DB07
    |       |--Cirrhipathes Blainville 1857 O01
    |       |    |--C. anguina RB14
    |       |    |--C. lutkeni OI05
    |       |    `--C. spiralis (Linnaeus 1758) [=Gorgonia spiralis] DB07
    |       |--Stichopathes Brook 1889 O01
    |       |    |--S. ceylonensis MG-H11
    |       |    |--S. dissimilis RB14
    |       |    `--S. flagellum RB14
    |       `--Antipathes Pallas 1766 O01
    |            |--A. abies H94
    |            |--A. atlantica RB14
    |            |--A. ericoides H94
    |            |--A. galapagensis C-SC03
    |            `--A. griggi RB14
    `--+--Aphanipathidae DB07
       |    |--Aphanipathes Brook 1889 O01
       |    |    `--A. verticillata RB14
       |    |         |--A. v. verticillata RB14
       |    |         `--A. v. mauiensis RB14
       |    |--Acanthopathes thyoides RB14
       |    |--Elatopathes abietina RB14
       |    `--Phanopathes expansa RB14
       `--Myriopathidae DB07
            |--Myriopathes O01
            |--Plumapathes Opresko 2001 O01
            |    |--*P. pennacea (Pallas 1766) [=Antipathes pennacea] O01
            |    `--P. fernandezi (Pourtalès 1874) [=Antipathes fernandezi] O01
            |--Cupressopathes Opresko 2001 O01
            |    |--*C. abies (Linnaeus 1758) [=Gorgonia abies] O01
            |    |--C. gracilis (Thomson & Simpson 1905) [=Antipathes gracilis] O01
            |    |--C. paniculata (Esper 1796) [=Antipathes paniculata] O01
            |    `--C. pumila (Brook 1889) [=Antipathes pumila] O01
            |--Antipathella Brook 1889 O01
            |    |--*A. subpinnata (Ellis & Solander 1786) [=Antipathes subpinnata] O01
            |    |--A. aperta (Totton 1923) [=Antipathes aperta] O01
            |    |--A. fiordensis (Grange 1990) [=Antipathes fiordensis] O01
            |    |--A. strigosa (Brook 1889) [=Antipathes strigosa] O01
            |    `--A. wollastoni (Gray 1857) [=Antipathes wollastoni] O01
            `--Tanacetipathes Opresko 2001 O01
                 |--*T. tanacetum (Pourtalès 1880) [=Antipathes tanacetum] O01
                 |--T. barbadensis (Brook 1889) [=Antipathes barbadensis] O01
                 |--T. cavernicola Opresko 2001 O01
                 |--T. hirta (Gray 1857) [=Antipathes hirta] O01
                 |--T. spinescens (Gray 1857) [=Antipathes spinescens] O01
                 |--T. thamnea (Warner 1981) [=Antipathes thamnea] O01
                 `--T. wirtzi Opresko 2001 O01

*Type species of generic name indicated


[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[DB07] Daly, M., M. R. Brugler, P. Cartwright, A. G. Collins, M. N. Dawson, D. G. Fautin, S. C. France, C. S. McFadden, D. M. Opresko, E. Rodriguez, S. L. Romano & J. L. Stake. 2007. The phylum Cnidaria: a review of phylogenetic patterns and diversity 300 years after Linnaeus. Zootaxa 1668: 127–182.

[H94] Humes, A. G. 1994. Two species of Paramolgus (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Lichomolgidae) associated with the scleractinian Pavona in New Caledonia with a key to the females of Paramolgus. Beaufortia 44 (1): 1–9.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[OI05] Okamoto, N., & I. Inouye. 2005. The katablepharids are a distant sister group of the Cryptophyta: a proposal for Katablepharidophyta divisio nova/Kathablepharida phylum novum based on SSU rDNA and beta-tubulin phylogeny. Protist 156: 163–179.

[O01] Opresko, D. M. 2001. Revision of the Antipatharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Part I. Establishment of a new family, Myriopathidae. Zoologische Mededelingen 75 (17): 343–370.

[RB14] Rodríguez, E., M. S. Barbeitos, M. R. Brugler, L. M. Crowley, A. Grajales, L. Gusmão, V. Häussermann, A. Reft & M. Daly. 2014. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. PLoS One 9 (5): e96998.

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