Octopoda

Blanket octopus Tremoctopus violaceus, copyright Cassandra L. Cox.


Belongs within: Coleoidea.
Contains: Grimpoteuthididae, Opisthoteuthididae, Octopodidae.

The Octopoda, octopuses, are a group of stout-bodied cephalopods with eight arms, no tentacles and no internal shell.

<==Octopoda [Octopodida]
    |  i. s.: Haliphron atlanticus [incl. Alloposus mollis] O99
    |         Polypus H09
    |           |--P. pictus (Brock 1882) [=Octopus pictus] H09
    |           |--P. polyzenia (Gray 1849) [=Octopus polyzenia] H09
    |           `--P. tenebricus (Smith 1884) [=Octopus tenebricus] H09
    |         Amphioctopus marginatus KVF11
    |--Cirrata [Cirroctopoda] O99
    |    |  i. s.: Chunioteuthis gilchristi (Robson 1924) [=Cirrhoteuthis gilchristi] O99
    |    |         Cirroteuthopsis massayae Grimpe 1920 O99
    |    |         Frokenia clara Hoyle 1904 O99
    |    |--Grimpoteuthididae O99
    |    |--Opisthoteuthididae O99
    |    |--Luteuthis O’Shea 1999 [Luteuthididae] O99
    |    |    |--*L. dentatus O’Shea 1999 O99
    |    |    `--‘Grimpoteuthis’ tuftsi Voss & Pearcy 1990 O99
    |    `--Cirroteuthididae O99
    |         |--Cirroteuthis Eschricht 1836 O99
    |         |    `--*C. muelleri Eschricht 1836 O99
    |         `--Cirrothauma Chun 1911 O99
    |              |--*C. murrayi Chun 1911 O99
    |              `--C. magna (Hoyle 1885) [=Cirroteuthis magna] O99
    `--Incirrata O99
         |--Octopodidae O99
         |--Ocythoe Rafinesque 1814 [Ocythoidae] O99
         |    `--*O. tuberculata Rafinesque 1814 O99
         |--Vitreledonella Joubin 1918 [Vitreledonellidae] O99
         |    `--*V. richardi Joubin 1918 O99
         |--Amphitretus Hoyle 1885 [Amphitretidae] O99
         |    |--*A. pelagicus Hoyle 1885 [incl. Idioctopus gracilipes Taki 1964] O99
         |    `--A. thielei Robson 1930 [=A. pelagicus thielei] O99
         |--Argonauta Linnaeus 1758 [Argonautidae, Argonautoidea] O99
         |    |--*A. argo Linnaeus 1758 [incl. A. bulleri Kirk 1885] O99
         |    |--A. boettgeri Maltzan 1881 P61
         |    |--A. hians Lightfoot 1786 MG-H11
         |    `--A. nodosa Solander 1786 [incl. A. gracilis Kirk 1885, A. tuberculata Shaw 1791] O99
         |--Tremoctopus delle Chiaje 1830 [Tremoctopodidae] O99
         |    |--*T. violaceus delle Chiaje 1830 O99
         |    |    |--T. v. violaceus O99
         |    |    `--T. v. gracilis O99
         |    |--T. gelatus O99
         |    `--T. robsonianus Kirk 1883 [=T. robsoni (l. c.)] O99
         `--Bolitaenidae [Bathypelagoctopoda, Bolitaenoidea] O99
              |--Bolitaena Steenstrup 1859 O99
              |    `--*B. microtyla Steenstrup in Hoyle 1886 O99
              |--Japetella Hoyle 1885 O99
              |    `--J. diaphana (Hoyle 1885) [=Eledonella diaphana, Bolitaena diaphana, Chunella diaphana] O99
              `--Eledonella Verrill 1884 O99
                   `--*E. pygmaea Verrill 1884 (see below for synonymy) O99

*Eledonella pygmaea Verrill 1884 [incl. E. ijimae Sasaki 1929, Bolitaena ijimai, E. massayae Robson 1924, B. massayae, Japetella prismatica Hoyle 1885, B. massayae purpurea Robson 1932, Eledonella sheardi Allan 1945] O99

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[H09] Hedley, C. 1909. The Marine Fauna of Queensland: Address by the President of Section D. Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science: Brisbane.

[KVF11] Kröger, B., J. Vinther & D. Fuchs. 2011. Cephalopod origin and evolution: a congruent picture emerging from fossils, development and molecules. Bioessays 33: 602–613.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O’Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[O99] O’Shea, S. 1999. The marine fauna of New Zealand: Octopoda (Mollusca: Cephalopoda). NIWA Biodiversity Memoir 112: 1–280.

[P61] Powell, A. W. B. 1961. Shells of New Zealand: An illustrated handbook 4th ed. Whitcombe and Tombs Limited: Christchurch.

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