Orange sponge Mycale armata, copyright J. Hoover.

Belongs within: Democlavia.
Contains: Dendroricellidae, Microcionidae, Raspailiidae, Coelosphaeridae.

The Poecilosclerida is a group of demosponges with discrete organic and inorganic skeletons, with discrete siliceous spicules (Hooper & Van Soest 2002).

Characters (from Hooper & Van Soest 2002): Skeleton composed of discrete siliceous spicules; main skeleton composed of megascleres (monactinal, diactinal or both) and spongin fibres in various stages of development; both fibre and mineral skeletons showing regional differentiation such that megascleres are often differentiated into distinct ectosomal and choanosomal components; microscleres including meniscoid forms such as chelae, sigmas and sigmancistra-derivatives, and other diverse forms such as toxas, raphides, microxeas and discate microrhabds. Reproduction usually viviparous with incompletely ciliated parenchymella larva; rarely oviparous.

    |--Myxillina L01
    |    |--Coelosphaeridae L01
    |    `--Myxillidae MG-H11
    |         |--Hymenancora lundbecki Hentschel 1912 BJ06
    |         |--Myxilla Schmidt 1862 [incl. Dendoryx Gray 1867] BJ06
    |         |    `--M. grata Thiele 1903 [=Dendoryx grata ms] BJ06
    |         `--Iotrochota MG-H11
    |              |--I. baculifera Ridley 1884 MG-H11
    |              |--I. coccinea (Carter 1886) FV09
    |              `--I. purpurea (Bowerbank 1875) BJ06
    `--Mycalina FA10
         |--Mycalidae MG-H11
         |    |--Phlyctaenopora MG-H11
         |    `--Mycale Gray 1867 [incl. Esperella Vosmaer 1885] BJ06
         |         |--M. armata Thiele 1903 [=Esperella armata ms] BJ06
         |         |--M. fibrexilis C-SC03
         |         |--M. macilenta B79
         |         |--M. moluccensis Thiele 1903 BJ06
         |         |--M. rhaphidotoxa Hentschel 1912 BJ06
         |         |--M. richardsoni F79
         |         `--M. sulcata BJ06
         |              |--M. s. sulcata BJ06
         |              `--M. s. aruensis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
         `--Guitarridae FA10
              |--Tetrapocillon Brøndsted 1924 FA10
              |    |--*T. novaezealandiae Brøndsted 1924 FA10
              |    |--T. atlanticus Van Soest 1988 FA10
              |    |--T. kurushimensis Tanita 1961 FA10
              |    |--T. minor Pulitzer-Finali 1993 FA10
              |    `--T. patbergquistae Fromont, Alvarez et al. 2010 FA10
              `--Guitarra FA10
                   |--G. fimbriata Carter 1874 FA10
                   `--G. indica Dendy 1916 FA10

Poecilosclerida incertae sedis:
  Acarnidae MG-H11
    |--Acarnus MG-H11
    |--Cornulum dubium Hentschel 1912 BJ06
    |--Damiria simplex Keller 1891 [incl. D. simplex fistulata Hentschel 1912] BJ06
    `--Zyzzya MG-H11
         |--Z. criceta Schoenberg 2000 FV09
         `--Z. fuliginosa (Carter 1879) FV09
  Chondropsidae MG-H11
    |--Chondropsis MG-H11
    |--Phoriospongia MG-H11
    |--Strongylacidon MG-H11
    `--Psammoclemma Marshall 1880 BJ06 [incl. Psammopemma Marshall 1880 BJ06]
         |--*Psammopemma’ densum Marshall 1881 LT64
         |--‘Psammopemma’ durissimum BJ06
         |    |--P. d. durissimum BJ06
         |    `--P. d. grisea Hentschel 1912 BJ06
         `--‘Psammopemma’ porosum Polejaff 1884 T72
  Crambeidae MG-H11
    |--Crambe crambe F79
    `--Monanchora unguiculata (Dendy 1922) FV09
  Crella [Crellidae] MG-H11
  Dendoricellidae MG-H11
  Hymedesmiidae MG-H11
    |--Hymedesmia mertoni Hentschel 1912 BJ06
    |--Phorbas MG-H11
    `--Hamigera [incl. Amoibodictya] BJ06
         `--*H. hamigera [incl. *Amoibodictya forsteri Zahn, Müller & Müller 1977] BJ06
  Coelocarteria [Isodictyidae] MG-H11
  Latrunculiidae MG-H11
    |--Latrunculia MG-H11
    `--Sceptrella MG-H11
  Microcionidae MG-H11
  Raspailiidae MG-H11
  Rhabderemia [Rhabderemiidae] MG-H11
    `--R. indica Dendy 1905 FV09
  Tedaniidae MG-H11
    |--Hemitedania MG-H11
    |--Strongylamma MG-H11
    `--Tedania MG-H11
         |--T. actiniformis F79
         |--T. anhelans (Lieberkuhn 1859) FV09
         |--T. brevispiculata Thiele 1903 BJ06
         |--T. coralliophila Thiele 1903 BJ06
         |--T. dirhaphis Hentschel 1912 BJ06
         |--T. maeandrica Thiele 1903 BJ06
         `--T. reticulata Thiele 1903 BJ06

*Type species of generic name indicated


[BJ06] Barnich, R., & D. Janussen. 2006. Die Typen und Typoide des Naturmuseums Senckenberg, Nr. 86. Type catalogue of the Porifera in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Senckenbergiana Biologica 86 (2): 127–144.

[B79] Buss, L. W. 1979. Habitat selection, directional growth and spatial refuges: why colonial animals have more hiding places. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 459–497. Academic Press: London.

[C-SC03] Cavalier-Smith, T., & E. E.-Y. Chao. 2003. Phylogeny of Choanozoa, Apusozoa, and other Protozoa and early eukaryote megaevolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56: 540–563.

[FA10] Fromont, J., B. Alvarez, O. Gomez & E. Roberts. 2010. Tetrapocillon (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida: Guitarridae) in Australia, with the description of a new species. Records of the Western Australian Museum 26 (1): 70–86.

[FV09] Fromont, J., & M. A. Vanderklift. 2009. Porifera (sponges) of Mermaid, Scott and Seringapatam Reefs, north Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 77: 89–103.

[F79] Fry, W. G. 1979. Taxonomy, the individual and the sponge. In: Larwood, G., & B. R. Rosen (eds) Biology and Systematics of Colonial Organisms pp. 49–80. Academic Press: London.

Hooper, J. N. A., & R. W. M. Van Soest. 2002. Order Poecilosclerida Topsent, 1928. In: Hooper, J. N. A., & R. W. M. Van Soest (eds) Systema Porifera: A Guide to the Classification of Sponges pp. 403–408. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers: New York.

[L01] Lee, W. L. 2001. Four new species of Forcepia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Coelosphaeridae) from California, and synonymy of Wilsa de Laubenfels, 1930, with Forcepia, Carter, 1874. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 52 (18): 227–244.

[LT64] Loeblich, A. R., Jr & H. Tappan. 1964. Sarcodina: chiefly “thecamoebians” and Foraminiferida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt C. Protista 2 vol. 2. The Geological Society of America and The University of Kansas Press.

[MG-H11] McEnnulty, F. R., K. L. Gowlett-Holmes, A. Williams, F. Althaus, J. Fromont, G. C. B. Poore, T. D. O'Hara, L. Marsh, P. Kott, S. Slack-Smith, P. Alderslade & M. V. Kitahara. 2011. The deepwater megabenthic invertebrates on the western continental margin of Australia (100–1100 m depths): composition, distribution and novelty. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 80: 1–191.

[T72] Tendal, O. S. 1972. A monograph of the Xenophyophoria (Rhizopodea, Protozoa). Galathea Report 12: 7–99.

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