Halcurias pilatus, from

Belongs within: Hexacorallia.
Contains: Actinostoloidea, Actinioidea, Metridioidea, Edwardsiidae.

The Actiniaria, sea anemones, are a diverse group of soft-bodied anthozoans characterised by the presence of three triangular, apical flaps on the nematocysts that flex outwards during discharge (Rodríguez et al. 2014).

<==Actiniaria [Actiniae, Athenaria, Nynantheae] RB14
    |--Enthemonae [Acontiaria, Mesomyaria, Ptychodacteae, Ptychodactiaria, Thenaria] RB14
    |    |  i. s.: Spongiactinidae RB14
    |    |--Actinostoloidea RB14
    |    `--+--Actinioidea RB14
    |       `--Metridioidea RB14
    `--Anenthemonae RB14
         |--Edwardsiidae RB14
         `--Actinernoidea [Actinernidae, Endocoelantheae] RB14
              |--Synhalcurias laevis RB14
              `--+--Actinernus antarcticus RB14
                 `--+--Isactinernus quadrilobatus RB14
                    `--Halcurias [Halcuriidae] RB14
                         `--H. pilatus RB14

Actiniaria incertae sedis:
  Triga philippinesis Gray 1867 RL03
  Isactinia HS01
    |--I. olivacea HS01
    `--I. tenebrosa O81
  Paractis HS01
    |--P. ferox HS01
    `--P. papaver H15
  Rhodactis H94
    |--R. rhodostoma H94
    `--R. sancti-thomae T87
  Heliactis H04
    |--H. bellis H04
    `--H. troglodytes H04
  Mesacmaea stellata H04
  Cylista impatiens H04
  Bunodes H04
    |--B. monilifera H04
    `--B. thallia H04
  Anthea cereus H04
  Actinoloba dianthus H04
  Tealia S77
    |--T. crassicornis (Gosse 1858) S77
    `--T. lofotensis (Gosse 1858) S77
  Aulactinia capitata CS77
  Gephyra dohrni PP64
  Eloactis mazeli PP64
  Oulactis muscosa H15
  Mackenzia costalis Walcott 1911 NS93

*Type species of generic name indicated


[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[H04] Haeckel, E. 1899–1904. Kunstformen der Natur. Bibliographisches Institut: Leipzig und Wien.

[HS01] Hayward, B. W., A. B. Stephenson, M. S. Morley, W. M. Blom, H. R. Grenfell, F. J. Brook, J. L. Riley, F. Thompson & J. J. Hayward. 2001. Marine biota of Parengarenga Harbour, Northland, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 37: 45–80.

[H15] Hedley, C. 1915. Presidential address. Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales 49 (1): 1–77, pls 1–7.

[H94] Humes, A. G. 1994. Two species of Paramolgus (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Lichomolgidae) associated with the scleractinian Pavona in New Caledonia with a key to the females of Paramolgus. Beaufortia 44 (1): 1–9.

[NS93] Nudds, J. R., & J. J. Sepkoski Jr. 1993. Coelenterata. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 101–124. Chapman & Hall: London.

[O81] O'Brien, C. O. 1981. A. A. Book of New Zealand Wildlife: A guide to the native and introduced animals of New Zealand. Lansdowne Press: Auckland.

[PP64] Peres, J. M., & J. Picard. 1964. Nouveau manuel de bionomie benthique de la mer Mediterranee. Recueil des Travaux de la Station Marine d'Endoume, Bulletin 31 (27): 5–137.

[RB14] Rodríguez, E., M. S. Barbeitos, M. R. Brugler, L. M. Crowley, A. Grajales, L. Gusmão, V. Häussermann, A. Reft & M. Daly. 2014. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) reveals a novel group of hexacorals. PLoS One 9 (5): e96998.

[RL03] Ryland, J. S., & J. E. Lancaster. 2003. Revision of methods for separating species of Protopalythoa (Hexacorallia: Zoanthidea) in the tropical West Pacific. Invertebrate Systematics 17: 407–428.

[S77] Salo, S. 1977. Observations on feeding, chemoreception and toxins in two species of Epitonium. Veliger 20 (2): 168–172.

[T87] Trench, R. K. 1987. Dinoflagellates in non-parasitic symbioses. In: Taylor, F. J. R. (ed.) The Biology of Dinoflagellates pp. 530–570. Blackwell Scientific.

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