Yponomeutoidea

Sedge moth Glyphipteryx chrysoplanetis, photographed by Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Ditrysia.

The Yponomeutoidea are a group of mostly small moths, the larvae of which bore in stems or leaves of plants.

Characters (from Nielsen & Common 1991): Very small to medium sized, ocelli present or absent; chaetosemata usually absent; scape sometimes with pecten; proboscis naked; maxillary palps small, 1-4-segmented; labial palps short, drooping or moderately ascending; epiphysis present; spurs 0-2-4, rarely 0-2-0; fore wing with M rarely retained in discal cell, chorda and pterostigma often present, R5 usually to termen, venation sometimes reduced; retinaculum in female sometimes a subcostal scale-tuft; hind tibiae usually smooth, abdomen sometimes with inconspicuous dorsal spining, S2 of tineid type and usually with transverse rim near anterior margin, male segment 8 with pleural lobes present and often with paired coremata. Larva with 3 (sometimes 2) prespiracular setae on prothorax, crochets in a uniordinal, uniserial to multiserial circle, occasionally in transverse band or absent; boring in stems, mining in leaves, feeding beneath a slight webbing, or in a more extensive webbing. Pupa without dorsal abdominal spines, or rarely with dorsal transverse ridges; in larval gallery or in fusiform or oval, silken, sometimes network cocoon or exposed, usually not protruded from cocoon or shelter at ecdysis.

<==Yponomeutoidea
    |--Acrolepiidae M03
    |--Plutellidae M03
    |    |--Dolichernis chloroleuca P27
    |    |--Protosynaemis eratopis P27
    |    |--Chrysorthenches AY04
    |    |--Chrysoteuches AY04
    |    |--Proditrix M03
    |    |    |--P. nielseni McQuillan 2003 M03
    |    |    `--P. tetragona M03
    |    |--Orthenches P27
    |    |    |--O. glyphtarcha L27
    |    |    `--O. similis P27
    |    `--Plutella GE05
    |         |--P. antiphona L27
    |         |--P. maculipennis P27
    |         |--P. sera L27
    |         `--P. xylostella GE05
    |--Glyphipterygidae M03
    |    |--Tebenna bradleyi M83
    |    |--Imma acosma P27
    |    |--Heliostibes M27
    |    |    |--H. electrica P27
    |    |    `--H. vibratrix Meyrick 1927 M27
    |    |--Simaethis P27
    |    |    |--S. albifasciata P27
    |    |    |--S. analoga P27
    |    |    `--S. combinatana P27
    |    `--Glyphipteryx P27
    |         |--G. achlyoessa P27
    |         |--G. acronoma P27
    |         |--G. ataracta P27
    |         |--G. chrysoplanetis P27
    |         |--G. cometophora P27
    |         |--G. condonias L27
    |         |--G. octonaria P27
    |         |--G. transversella P27
    |         `--G. zelota P27
    `--+--Bedellia P27 [Bedelliidae M03]
       |    |--B. psamminella L27
       |    `--B. somnulentella P27
       |--Heliodinidae M03
       |    |--Thylacosceles acridomima P27
       |    |--Eretmocera flavicincta P27
       |    |--Vanicela P27
       |    |    |--V. disjunctella P27
       |    |    `--V. xenadelpha P27
       |    `--Stathmopoda P27
       |         |--S. coracodes P27
       |         |--S. crocophanes P27
       |         |--S. melanochroa P27
       |         |--S. phlegyra L27
       |         `--S. skelloni L27
       `--Lyonetidae M03
            |--Leucoptera spartifoliella P04
            |--Hectacma stilbella P27
            |--Hieroxestis P27
            |    |--H. hapsimacha L27
            |    `--H. omoscopa P27
            |--Eschatotypa P27
            |    |--E. derogatella P27
            |    `--E. melichrysa L27
            `--Erechthias M27
                 |--E. acrodina L27
                 |--E. charadota L27
                 |--E. externella M27
                 |--E. fulguritella L27
                 `--E. lychnopa Meyrick 1927 M27

Yponomeutoidea incertae sedis:
  Aegeriidae DS73
  Douglasia Stainton 1854 P66 [=Douglassia (l. c.) non Bartsch 1934 P66; Douglasiidae DS73]
  Yponomeutidae GE05
    |--Tonza purella P27
    |--Lactura egregiella P27
    |--Hyponomeuta interellus P27
    |--Zelleria copidota P27
    |--Atteva niveiguttella GE05, WM66 [=Corinea niveiguttella WM66]
    |--Urodus parvula GE05
    |--Yponomeuta malinella YS10
    `--Prays YS10
         |--P. citri RC91
         `--P. oleellus YS10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[AY04] Austin, A. D., D. K. Yeates, G. Cassis, M. J. Fletcher, J. La Salle, J. F. Lawrence, P. B. McQuillan, L. A. Mound, D. J. Bickel, P. J. Gullan, D. F. Hales & G. S. Taylor. 2004. Insects 'Down Under' - diversity, endemism and evolution of the Australian insect fauna: examples from select orders. Australian Journal of Entomology 43 (3): 216-234.

[DS73] Dickens, M., & E. Storey. 1973. The World of Moths. Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.: New York.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L27] Lindsay, S. 1927. A list of the Lepidoptera of Deans Bush, Riccarton, Canterbury. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 693-696.

[M83] Martin, N. A. 1983. Miscellaneous observations on a pasture fauna: An annotated species list. DSIR Entomology Division Report 3: 1-98.

[M03] McQuillan, P. B. 2003. The giant Tasmanian ‘pandani’ moth Proditrix nielseni, sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Plutellidae s. l.) Invertebrate Systematics 17: 59-66.

[M27] Meyrick, E. 1927. Descriptions of New Zealand Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 697-702.

Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia vol. 2, pp. 817-915. Melbourne University Press.

[P04] Patrick, B. 2004. Parsnip moth established in New Zealand. Weta 27: 8-12.

[P27] Philpott, A. 1927. The maxillae in the Lepidoptera. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 57: 721-746.

[P66] Powell, A. W. B. 1966. The molluscan families Speightiidae and Turridae: An evaluation of the valid taxa, both Recent and fossil, with lists of characteristic species. Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum 5: 1-184, pl. 1-23.

[RC91] Ragusa Di Chiara, S. 1991. Using native phytoseiids in agricultural cropping systems. In Dusbábek, F. & V. Bukva (eds) Modern Acarology: Proceedings of the VIII International Congress of Acarology, held in České Budĕjovice, Czechoslovakia, 6–11 August 1990 vol. 1 pp. 159-166. SPB Academic Publishing: The Hague.

[WM66] Wallace, A. R., & F. Moore. 1866. List of lepidopterous insects collected at Takow, Formosa, by Mr. R. Swinhoe. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1866: 355-365.

[YS10] Yefremova, Z. A. & I. S. Strakhova. 2010. A review of the species of the genus Elasmus Westwood (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Russia and neighboring countries. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 89 (3): 634-661.

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