Reconstruction of Horneophyton lignieri, copyright Falconaumanni.

Belongs within: Streptophyta.
Contains: Apo-Tracheophyta, Anthocerotopsida, Marchantiophyta, Bryophyta.

The clade Embryophyta contains the land plants, the dominant producers of the terrestrial environment. These organisms were able to thrive out of the water due to the retention and fertilisation of their eggs within protective structures, though less derived forms remain dependent on damp conditions for successful fertilisation. Adjacent cells are connected by junctions (plasmodesmata) perforating the cell wall. Land plants are often divided for convenience between the vascular (tracheophytes) and non-vascular (mosses, liverworts and hornworts) plants. Past classifications have used the name 'Bryophyta' to refer to all non-vascular plants, but the majority of recent authors would restrict this name to the mosses alone. There has been much debate over the exact interrelationships between the vascular and non-vascular plants. Many authors place the hornworts (Anthocerotophyta) as sister to the tracheophytes, as supported by the relationship between sporophytes and gametophytes: liverworts and mosses have the sporophyte and gametophyte separated by a placental space, usually filled with collapsed cells derived from the gametophyte, while hornworts and basal tracheophytes have the two in direct contact without a separating layer of collapsed cells (Frey et al. 2001). However, a recent large-scale molecular analysis by Wickett et al. (2014) suggested the possibility of a monophyletic clade of non-vascular plants, or a sister relationship between Anthocerotophyta and all other land plants. Fossil spores indicate that the land plants first arose during the Ordovician, with the four major living lineages possibly diverging by the end of that period. The earliest Ordovician spores, referred to as cryptospores, are most commonly associated in dyads and tetrads and characterised by the lack of trilete marks (Steemans et al. 2012). However, plant macrofossils have not yet been recovered from earlier than the Late Silurian (Bateman et al. 1998). Despite their potentially nested position, vascular plants are better represented in the early fossil record than non-vascular plants due to their higher preservation potential; unequivocal liverworts are not known from early than the Late Devonian (Bateman et al. 1998).

Embryophytes are characterised by alternation in generations between asexually-reproducing diploid sporophytes and sexually-reproducing haploid gametophytes. In liverworts, mosses and hornworts, the gametophytes are the dominant generation, and support the nutritively dependent sporophytes. In vascular plants, the sporophytes are independently growing and the dominant life stage. The Early Devonian Horneophyton is a stem-vascular plant that possessed both independently growing sporophytes and gametophytes, but did not possess the reinforced water-conducting tracheid cells of vascular plants (instead, it possessed a plesiomorphic central strand of conducting tissue that was not reinforced by thickenings). Horneophyton and vascular plants also share the production of multiple sporangia per individual. Horneophyton had terminal sporangia with a central columella (sterile section) similar to the sporangium of a hornwort.

Koeppenia eifeliensis Schweitzer 2000 is a strobilus (reproductive stalk) of uncertain affinities from the Lower Devonian of Denmark, which bore a dense arrangement of sporangiophores along its length on narrow branching stalks. Other fossils listed below include Rhabdotarachnoides simoni, originally described as an arachnid from the Lower Permian of Germany but since re-interpreted as an unidentifiable piece of plant material (Dunlop 2007). Neocystites, originally described as a cystoid echinoderm, probably represents a fragment of root (Kesling 1967).

<==Embryophyta [Acotyledones, Cormophyta, Cryptogamae, Embryobiotes, Hepatophyta] WM14
    |--Pan-Tracheophyta [Polysporangiomorpha] CD07
    |    |--Apo-Tracheophyta WM14
    |    `--Horneophyton [Horneophytaceae, Horneophytales, Horneophytopsida] D98
    |         `--H. lignieri (Kidston & Lang) Barghoorn & Darrah 1938 C93
    `--Bryata MS98
         |  i. s.: Cryptocoleopsis imbricata B-OO10
         |         Hydrocryphaea wardii B-OO10
         |         Prasanthus suecicus B-OO10
         |         Yunnanobryon rhyacophilum B-OO10
         |         Lobatiriccardia yunnannesis B-OO10
         |         Gottschelia grollei B-OO10
         |         Hamatostrepta concinna B-OO10
         |--Anthocerotophyta [Anthocerotae] WM14
         |    |--Leiosporoceros Hässel 1986 [Leiosporocerotaceae, Leiosporocerotales, Leiosporocerotopsida] SC-S05
         |    `--Anthocerotopsida SC-S05
         `--+--Marchantiophyta WM14
            `--Bryophyta WM14

Embryophyta incertae sedis:
  Eophyllophyton bellum K01
  Sublepidodendron ZA02
    |--S. mirabile ZA02
    `--S. wusihense [=Lepidodendron wusihense, Eolepidodendron wusihense] CWC87
  Colophospermum mopane WS02
  Isoetites BO02
    |--I. abundans Tosolini & McLoughlin 2002 TMD02
    `--I. daharensis Barale 1999 BO02
  Ptilophyllum caucasicum G10
  Otozamites BO02
  Eranthis hyemalis V02
  Synsepalum dulcificum ZB03
  Rhaciopteris busseana A38
  Diplothmema subfurcatum A38
  Megalopteris dawsoni A38
  Sporangites acuminata A38
  Pterispermostrobus bifurcatus A38
  Whittleseya A38
    |--W. concinna A38
    `--W. dawsoniana A38
  Cardiocarpon A38
    |--C. baileyi A38
    |--C. cornutum A38
    |--C. crampi A38
    `--C. obliquum A38
  Asterophyllites A38
    |--A. acicularis A38
    |--A. equisetiformis G31
    `--A. parvulus [incl. A. grandis] A38
  Campsiandra laurifolia DS86
  Radiola linoides [=Linum radiola] C55a
  Succowia balearica [=Bunias balearica] C55a
  Dentaria C55a
    |--D. bulbifera C55a
    `--D. enneaphylla C55a
  Aretia villosa C55a
  Nauenburgia thyrsiflora C55a
  Cybistax antisyphilitica C55a
  Nonnea ventricosa C55a
  Doratanthera linearis C55a
  Ramphicarpa fistulosa C55a
  Anodendron paniculatum C55a
  Lachnopylis oppositifolia C55a
  Hugueninia tanacetifolia C55a
  Adenostyles leucophylla C55a
  Kernera saxatilis C55a
  Petrocallis pyrenaica C55a
  Orobus luteus C55a
  Libanotis montana C55a
  Serratula nudicaulis C55a
  Betonica alopecurus C55a
  Zephyritis taitensis C55a
  Catabrosa aquatica [=Aira aquatica] C55a
  Tristegis glutinosa C55b
  Crambe C55b
    |--C. hispanica C55b
    |--C. maritima C55a
    `--C. orientalis C55b
  Cucubalus bacciferus C55b
  Choerophyllum C55b
    |--C. aromaticum C55b
    `--C. aureum C55b
  Hyssopus officinalis C55b
  Blitum C55b
    |--B. polymorphum C55b
    `--B. virgatum C55b
  Anacharis alsinastrum C55b
  Ervum C55b
    |--E. hirsutum C55b
    `--E. lens C55b
  Lappa major C55b
  Ambrina D03
    |--A. ambrosioides D03
    `--A. botrys C55b
  Agathophytum bonus-henricus [=Blitum bonus-henricus] C55b
  Guilandina bonduc [incl. G. bonducella] C55b
  Drepanocarpus lunatus C55b
  Ecastaphyllum brownei C55b
  Schwenkia americana C55b
  Telanthera C55b
    |--T. brasiliana C55b
    |--T. frutescens C55b
    `--T. maritima C55b
  Poinciana pulcherrima C55b
  Ptarmica alpina C55b
  Piddingtonia nummularia C55b
  Queria hispanica C55b
  Hohenackeria bupleurifolia C55b
  Vandellia crustacea C55b
  Manusiris granularis C55b
  Malachra C55b
    |--M. capitata A73
    `--M. radiata C55b
  Coleus BMM99
    |--C. africanus C55b
    `--C. × hybridus BMM99
  Micropyxis pumila [incl. Centunculus pentandrus] C55b
  Elythraria fasciculata C55b
  Lubinia spathulata C55b
  Colea ramiflora DC. 1845 (see below for synonymy) S77
  Cirrhopetalum thouarsii C55b
  Riedleia concatenata C55b
  Biophytum sensitivum C55b
  Stachytarpha indica C55b
  Buchenavia capitata SWK87
  Exothea paniculata SWK87
  Matayba domingensis SWK87
  Laetia procera SWK87
  Torrubia fragrans SWK87
  Byrsonia spicata SWK87
  Triphasia trifolia SWK87
  Ventarura lyonii FT05
  Enterolobium I-BH-O10
    |--E. cyclocarpum F55
    `--E. timbouva I-BH-O10
  Glenniea philippinensis P88
  Dryobalanops aromatica P88
  Anthocephalus Pau03
    |--A. cadamba Pau03
    `--A. chinensis P88
  Adinandra dumosa P88
  Ploarium alternifolium P88
  Meliopsis usambarensis RS99
  Paris quadrifolia D51
  Procopiana insularis S98
  Gymnocarpos decander AGF98
  Anabasis articulata AGF98
  Dinebra retroflexa GR98
  Guiera senegalensis HK98
  Boscia HK98
    |--B. angustifolia HK98
    `--B. senegalensis HK98
  Leptosema chambersii SM90
  Tapeinia CL85
    |--T. magellanica D03
    `--T. pumila CL85
  Rhabdotarachnoides Haupt 1957 Du07, H57
    `--*R. simoni Haupt 1957 H57
  Caia BC98
  Albertia Schimper in Voltz 1837 FT93
  Swida australis CK05
  Nanophyton erinaceus TLT98
  Chlidanophyton Gensel 1973 G97
  Sterulia longiflora J06
  Champereia manillana J06
  Aequitriradites VB02
    |--A. hispidus VB02
    |--A. spinulosus VB02
    `--A. verrucosus VB02
  Biretisporites potoniaei Delcourt & Sprumont 1955 YB02
  Foraminisporis TMD02
    |--F. asymmetricus VB02
    |--F. tribulosus VB02
    `--F. wonthaggiensis TMD02
  Pilosisporites notensis TMD02
  Foveosporites canalis Balme 1957 YB02
  Gabonisporis YB02
    |--G. cristata (Stanley) Sweet 1986 YB02
    |--G. labyrinthus Srivastava 1972 YB02
    `--G. vigourouxii Boltenhagen 1967 YB02
  Hamulatisporis YB02
    |--H. amplus Stanley 1965 YB02
    `--H. hamulatis Krutzsch 1959 YB02
  Intertriletes scrobiculatus Anderson 1960 YB02
  Klukisporites YB02
    |--K. foveolatus Pocock 1964 YB02
    |--K. punctatus Venkatachala 1969 YB02
    |--K. scaberis VB02
    |--K. variegatus VB02
    `--K. venkatachalae VB02
  Lusatisporites dettmanniae (Drugg) Srivastava 1972 YB02
  Osmundacidites YB02
    |--O. minutus VB02
    `--O. wellmanii Couper 1953 YB02
  Retitriletes YB02
    |--R. circolumenus VB02
    `--R. nidus Srivastava 1972 YB02
  Triporoletes YB02
    |--T. asper Srivastava 1972 YB02
    |--T. cenomanianus (Agasie) Srivastava 1977 YB02
    |--T. radiatus (Dettmann) Playford 1971 YB02
    |--T. reticulatus (Pocock) Playford 1971 YB02
    `--T. simplex VB02
  Alsophilidites bellus VB02
  Concavisporites crassus VB02
  Concavissimisporites VB02
    |--C. apiverrucata VB02
    |--C. kutchensis VB02
    |--C. penolaensis VB02
    |--C. variverrucosus VB02
    `--C. verrucosus VB02
  Contignisporites VB02
    |--C. cooksoniae VB02
    |--C. fornicatus VB02
    |--C. glebulentus VB02
    `--C. multimuratus VB02
  Cooksonites variabilis VB02
  Murospora florida VB02
  Impardecispora VB02
    |--I. apiverrucata VB02
    `--I. indica VB02
  Lycopodiacidites VB02
    |--L. asperatus VB02
    |--L. dettmanniae VB02
    `--L. keupperi DV06
  Foveotriletes parviretus VB02
  Neoraistrickia truncata VB02
  Equisetosporites VB02
    |--E. concinnus VB02
    |--E. eocensis VB02
    |--E. virginiaensis VB02
    `--E. volutus (Stanley 1965) Farabee & Canright 1986 ChrPr02
  Santhalisporites imperfectus VB02
  Januasporites spiniferus VB02
  Schizaeoisporites eocenicus VB02
  Undulatisporites pannuceus VB02
  Callispora potoniei VB02
  Podosporites VB02
    |--P. microsaccatus VB02
    `--P. tripakshi VB02
  Lametatriletes indicus VB02
  Ceratosporites VB02
    |--C. equalis VB02
    `--C. helidonensis VB02
  Microcachryidites antarcticus VB02
  Duplexisporites problematicus VB02
  Polycingulatisporites crenulatus VB02
  Baculatisporites comaumensis VB02
  Matonisporis cooksoniae VB02
  Stereisporites pocockii VB02
  Callialasporites VB02
    |--C. dampieri VB02
    `--C. turbatus VB02
  Boseisporites insignites VB02
  Taurocusporites segmentatus VB02
  Obtusisporis yarragadensis VB02
  Dettmannites attenuarus VB02
  Biformaesporites baculosus VB02
  Triletes tuberculiformis VB02
  Staplinisporites imperfectus VB02
  Microreticulatisporites uniformis VB02
  Coniatisporites haradensis VB02
  Densoisporites mesozoicus VB02
  Crassimonoletes surangei VB02
  Dictyotosporites complex VB02
  Appendicisporites bilateralis VB02
  Carolinapollis Christopher & Prowell 2002 ChrPr02
    `--*C. triangularis Christopher & Prowell 2002 ChrPr02
  Holkopollenites Fairchild in Stover, Elsik & Fairchild 1966 ChrPr02
    |--*H. chemardensis Fairchild in Stover, Elsik & Fairchild 1966 ChrPr02
    `--H. irregularis Christopher & Prowell 2002 ChrPr02
  Striaperipollis Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
    `--*S. gracilistriatus Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
  Interpollis supplingensis (Pflug) Krutzsch 1960 ChrPr02
  Plicatopollis cretacea Frederiksen & Christopher 1978 ChrPr02
  Longaevipollis Khlonova 1961 ChrPr02
    |--*L. sibiricus Khlonova 1961 ChrPr02
    |--L. fortis Christopher & Prowell 2002 ChrPr02
    `--L. subtilis Christopher & Prowell 2002 ChrPr02
  Trisectoris costatus Tschudy 1970 ChrPr02
  Osculapollis aequalis Tschudy 1975 ChrPr02
  Libopollis jarzenii Farabee, Daghlian et al. 1984 ChrPr02
  Monocirculopollis Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
  Orapollis Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
  Vaclavipollis Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
  Vancampopollenites Kedves & Pittau 1976 ChrPr02
  Gomphrenipollis Anzotegui & Cuadrado 1996 ChrPr02
  Iberipollis Krutzsch 1966 ChrPr02
  Papillipollis Pflug 1953 ChrPr02
  Cingutriletes clavus VB02
  Coptospora VB02
    |--C. microgranulosa VB02
    `--C. paradoxa (Cookson & Dettmann) Dettmann 1963 RC02
  Cyclosporites hughesii (Cookson & Dettmann 1958) Cookson & Dettmann 1959 RC02
  Perinopollenites elatoides Couper 1958 RC02
  Droseridites senonicus VH02
  Gnetaceaepollenites diversus VH02
  Maravenites Muller, de Di Giacomo & Van Erve 1987 ChrPr02
  Reticulatisporites pudens VB02
  Ruffordiaspora VB02
    |--R. australiensis VB02
    `--R. ludbrookiae VB02
  Rugotriletes costatus (Dijkstra) Potonié 1956 TMD02
  Tholisporites chulus W97
  Aulisporites artigmosus DDL04
  Camnosporites secatus DDL04
  Duplicisporites DDL04
    |--D. granulatus (Leschik 1956) DV06
    `--D. verrucosus (Leschik 1956) DV06
  Enzonalasporites DDL04
    |--E. densus DDL04
    |--E. ignacii DDL04
    `--E. vigens Leschik 1956 DV06
  Samaropollenites speciosus DDL04
  Narenga porphorycoma BTT02
  Cardiopteridium spitsbergense ZP86
  Koeppenia Schweitzer 2000 Sc00
    `--*K. eifeliensis Schweitzer 2000 Sc00
  Sartilmania jabachensis Sc00
  Halocarpus RL96
    |--H. bidwillii RL96
    `--H. biformis W91
  Leonohebe mooreae W91
  Pilosella officinale PAE98
  Houstonia purpurea EBS98
  Trichogoniopsis adenantha M-FR08
  Chrysodium lanzeanum S89
  Plenasium lignitum S89
  Benizia calopteris S89
  Graevia crenata S89
  Apeibopsis gaudinii S89
  Balthasaria schliebenii DL94
  Gynotroches axillaris C78
  Teysmanniodendron bogoriense C78
  Intsia bijuga C78
  Guevina avellana D03
  Mitraria coccinea D03
  Asteranthera chiloensis D03
  Sarmienta repens D03
  Decostea D03
    |--D. racemosa D03
    `--D. ruscifolia D03
  Rhaphithamnus cyanocarpus D03
  Myoschilos oblongus D03
  Schoenodon chilensis D03
  Saxegothea conspicua D03
  Susarium segethi D03
  Hebenstretia angolensis B06
  Laurofillum JD05
    |--L. acutimontanum JD05
    `--L. pseudoprinceps JD05
  Viscophyllum weylandii JD05
  Icaciniphyllum artocarpites JD05
  Hamatophyton verticillatum CWC87
  Lepidostrobophyllum fimbriatum CWC87
  Neocystites Barrande 1887 [=Neocystis Bather 1889] K67
  Piptadenia buchananii W86
  Hopoea odorata B88
  Symphiocarpos B75
    |--S. occidentalis B75
    `--S. orbiculatus B75
  Drepanostachyum intermedium Da07
  Maotia puya Da07
  Alcimandra cathcartii Da07
  Bonnamia latifolia Par03
  Loricaria columbiana R96
  Hesperomeles ferruginea R96
  Neurolepis arista R96
  Amphipterygium adstringens G69
  Calycotome RBA00
    |--C. spinosa C74
    `--C. villosa RBA00
  Mariopteris R79
    |--M. muricata G31
    `--M. pygmea R79
  Lagarostrobos SN08
    |--L. colensoi RL96
    `--L. franklanii SN08
  Befaria racemosa M83
  Hepatica transsilvanica H09
  Pituranthus triradiatus HF03
  Dubautia linearis MK08
  Fagaropsis angolensis E09
  Stricklandia Buckman 1845 AB65
  Megalodonta beckii B97
  Crysophila guagara BM76
  Paranymphaea crassifola OB13
  Stranvaesia niitakayamensis ChuPe02
  Guazuma tomentosa B14
  Thyrsopteris [Thyrsopteridaceae] P-GR14
    `--T. elegans P-GR14
  Pringlea antiscorbutica SBG97
  Petalostylis labicheoides ML13
  Moerua rigida CS77
  Antenostoma fasciculatum BT72
  Brickiella californica BT72
  Hammada L98
    |--H. salicornica L98
    `--H. scoparia L98
  Anvillea garcini L98
  Rhacophyllum coriaceum R87
  Noeggerathiopsis S87
    |--N. aequalis G31
    |--N. media S87
    |--N. prisca S87
    `--N. spathulata S87
  Armeniaca RJ11
    |--A. sibirica RJ11
    `--A. vulgaris TW07
  Peritoma serrulatum R35
  Camphora officinalis C70
  Gonioma kamassi P65
  Lepidophyllum RJ11
    |--L. lanceolatum G31
    `--L. quadrangulare RJ11
  Thalia geniculata F11
  Pullea stutzeri WO95
  Coleospermum paniculatum WO95
  Galax aphylla R56
  Cheilotetras caledonica Wellman & Richardson 1993 SP12
  Tetrahedraletes Strother & Traverse 1979 SP12
    `--T. medinensis (Strother & Traverse) Wellman & Richardson 1993 SP12
  Rimosotetras problematica Burgess 1991 SP12
  Imperfectotriletes Steemans et al. 2000 SP12
    |--I. patinatus Steemans et al. 2000 SP12
    `--I. varvdovae (Richardson) Steemans et al. 2000 SP12
  Pseudodyadospora laevigata Johnson 1985 SP12
  Gneudnaspora divellomedia (Chibrikova) Balme 1988 [=Laevolancis divellomedia] SP12
    |--G. d. var. divellomedia SP12
    `--G. d. var. minor Breuer et al. 2007 [=Laevolancis divellomedia var. minor] SP12
  Laevolancis chibrikovae Steemans et al. 2000 [=Gneudnaspora chibrikovae] SP12
  Dyadospora Strother & Traverse 1979 SP12
    |--D. murusattenuata Strother & Traverse 1979 SP12
    `--D. murusdensa Strother & Traverse 1979 SP12
  Abditusdyadus Wellman & Richardson 1996 SP12
    `--A. laevigatus Wellman & Richardson 1996 SP12
  Acontotetras inconspicuis Richardson 1996 SP12
  Ancyrospora ancyrea Richardson 1964 SP12
  Archaeozonotriletes chulusnanus Steemans et al. 1996 SP12
  Artemopyra Burgess & Richardson 1991 SP12
    `--A. brevicosta Burgess & Richardson 1991 SP12
  Breconisporites Richardson et al. 1982 SP12
  Chelinohilates Richardson 1996 SP12
    `--C. erraticus Richardson 1996 SP12
  Chelinospora Allen 1965 SP12
    |--C. cantabrica Richardson et al. 2001 SP12
    |--C. cassicula Richardson & Lister 1969 SP12
    `--C. poecilomorpha (Richardson & Ioannides) Richardson et al. 2001 SP12
  Clivosispora verrucata McGregor & Camfield 1976 SP12
    |--C. v. var. verrucata SP12
    `--C. v. var. convoluta McGregor & Camfield 1976 SP12
  Coronaspora Rodríguez 1978 SP12
    `--C. cromatica Jansonius & Hills 1979 SP12
  Cymbohilates Richardson 1996 SP12
    |--C. baqaensis Breuer et al. 2007 SP12
    |--C. cymosus Richardson 1996 SP12
    `--C. disponerus Richardson 1996 SP12
  Cymbosporites Allen 1965 SP12
    |--C. dammamensis Steemans 1995 SP12
    |--C. proteus McGregor & Camfield 1976 SP12
    `--C. stellospinosus Steemans 1989 SP12
  Dictyotriletes Naumova ex Ischchenko 1952 SP12
    `--D. subgranifer McGregor 1973 SP12
  Hispanaediscus Cramer 1966 SP12
    `--H. verrucatus (Cramer) Burgess & Richardson 1991 SP12
  Hystricosporites McGregor 1960 SP12
  Rugosisporites Dufka 1995 SP12
  Scylaspora Burgess & Richardson 1995 SP12
  Segestrespora Burgess 1991 SP12
    |--S. laevigata Burgess 1991 SP12
    `--S. membranifera (Johnson) Burgess 1991 SP12
  Stegambiquadrella contenta Johnson 1985 SP12
  Velatitetras Burgess 1991 SP12
    |--V. laevigata Burgess 1991 SP12
    `--V. retimembrana (Miller & Eames 1982) Wellman & Richardson 1996 SP12
  Zonotriletes Luber & Walts 1938 SP12
  Bathurstia Hueber 1972 SP12
  Estinnophyton Fairon-Demaret 1978 SP12
  Hollandophyton Rogerson et al. 2002 SP12
  Junggaria Dou & Sun 1983 SP12
  Metacladophyton Wang & Geng 1997 SP12
  Cirratriradites diaphanus Steemans 1989 SP12
  Sphaerasaccus glabellus Steemans et al. 2000 SP12
  Amicosporites streelii Steemans 1989 SP12
  Brochotriletes foveolatus Naumova 1953 SP12
  Latosporites ovalis Breuer et al. 2007 SP12
  Camarozonotriletes sextantii McGregor & Camfield 1976 SP12
  Samarisporites triangulatus Allen 1965 SP12
  Lophozonotriletes media Taugourdeau-Lantz 1967 SP12
  Cyatheacidites annulatus V12
  Cibotiidites tuberculiformis V12
  Peromonolites bowenii V12
  Dacrydiumites praecupressinoides V12
  Dodartia orientalis Si00
  Echinopanax Si00
    |--E. elatum Si00
    `--E. horridum C52
  Turraeanthus africana Si00
  Atamisquea emarginata BT87
  Trixus californicus BT87
  Viquiera stenoloba BT87
  Pleioblastus chino TM96
  Acanthyllis tragacanthoides B28
  Traganum nudatum B28
  Amberboa lippii B28
  Koniga maritima B28
  Triticosecale rimpani PS96
  Apollonias barbujana BBO02
  Eubotryoides grayana BBO02
  Acalyptospora Desm. 1848 (n. d.) KC01
  Rhodocolea racemosa [incl. Bignonia compressa Lank 1785, Colea decora DC. 1845] S77
    |--R. r. var. racemosa S77
    `--R. r. var. humblotiana [incl. Colea aberrans Baill. 1889] S77
  Dichrotrichum ternateum [=Bignonia ternatea Reinw. ex De Vriese 1858 (n. n.)] S77
  Thaumatococcus daniellii W92
  Discoreophyllum cumminsii W92
  Pelucha trifida MF68
  Corsinipollenites thiergartii WPL96
  Anapiculatisporites largus WT04
  Tripartites vetustus PSC99
  Rotaspora fracta PSC99
  Raistrickia nigra PSC99
  Triquitrites marginatus PSC99
  Schulzospora campyloptera PSC99
  Lycospora pusilla PSC99
  Leptotoma G10
    |--L. lenaensis G10
    `--L. prynardii G10
  Chaja ivorensis K68
  Cupuliferoidaepollenites liblarensis P92
  Ulmipollenites undulosus P92
  Palaeostachya arborescens G31
  Pinnularia columnaris G31
  Semaropsis fluitans G31
  Stachannularia tuberculata G31
  Collipseridium dawsonianum G31
  Cardiocarpus boulayi G31
  Lonchopteris alata G31
  Callipteridium G31
    |--C. koraiensis G31
    `--C. pteridium G31
  Callipteris G31
    |--C. conferta G31
    |--C. crassinervis G31
    `--C. murenensis G31
  Mixoneura subcrenata G31
  Lagenospermum oblongum G31
  Annulariopsis inopinata G31
  Chiropteris reniformis G31
  Conchophyllum richthofeni G31
  Neurogangamopteris cardiopteroides G31
  Caenodendron primaevum G31
  Equisetites mirabilis G31
  Mesopitys tschichatschewi G31
  Psygmophyllum mongolicum G31
  Glottophyllum cuneatum G31
  Canthiumidites bellus OW01
  Monotocidites galeatus OW01
  Wittania somnifera A73

Nomina nuda: Chrysodium doriae Squinabol 1889 S89
             Nassauvia dusenii Hoffm. in Dusén 2003 D03

Colea ramiflora DC. 1845 [=Bignonia ramiflora Decne 1834; incl. B. colei Don 1838, Colea colei Green 1826, C. timorensis ms] S77

*Type species of generic name indicated


[AGF98] Abd El-Ghani, M. M., & A. G. Fahmy. 1998. Composition of and changes in the spontaneous flora of Feiran Oasis, S Sinai, Egypt, in the last 60 years. Willdenowia 28: 123–134.

[A38] Alcock, F. J. 1938. Geology of Saint John region, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada Memoir 216: 1–65.

[A73] Ali, S. M. 1973. Some coccids from Goa. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69 (3): 669–671.

[AB65] Amsden, T. W., & G. Biernat. 1965. Pentamerida. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt H. Brachiopoda vol. 2 pp. H523–H552. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas Press: Lawrence (Kansas).

[BT72] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1972. New species and further notes on the Tetranychoidea mostly from the southwestern United States (Acarina: Tetranychidae and Tenuipalpidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 116: 1–37.

[BT87] Baker, E. W., & D. M. Tuttle. 1987. The false spider mites of Mexico (Tenuipalpidae: Acari). United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Bulletin 1706: 1–237.

[BTT02] Baral, N., B. Tamang & N. Timilsina. 2002. Status of Bengal florican Houbaropsis bengalensis in Royal Bardia National Park, Nepal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 413–417.

[BO02] Barale, G., & M. Ouaja. 2002. La biodiversité végétale des gisements d’âge Jurassique supérieur-Crétacé inférieur de Merbah El Asfer (Sud-Tunisien). Cretaceous Research 23: 707–737.

[BC98] Bateman, R. M., P. R. Crane, W. A. DiMichele, P. R. Kenrick, N. P. Rowe, T. Speck & W. E. Stein. 1998. Early evolution of land plants: phylogeny, physiology, and ecology of the primary terrestrial radiation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 263–292.

[B-OO10] Bednarek-Ochyra, H., & R. Ochyra. 2010. Bucklandiella shevockii (Bryophyta, Grimmiaceae), an exquisite new species from Yunnan, China. Polish Botanical Journal 55 (2): 499–506.

[BBO02] Begerow, D., R. Bauer & F. Oberwinkler. 2002. The Exobasidiales: an evolutionary hypothesis. Mycological Progress 1 (2): 187–199.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[B88] Bouček, Z. 1988. Australasian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): A biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[B75] Bowles, J. B. 1975. Distribution and biogeography of mammals of Iowa. Special Publications, The Museum, Texas Tech University 9: 1–184.

[BMM99] Braun, U., J. Mouchacca & E. H. C. McKenzie. 1999. Cercosporoid hyphomycetes from New Caledonia and some other South Pacific islands. New Zealand Journal of Botany 37: 297–327.

[B97] Brown, K. M. 1997. Temporal and spatial patterns of abundance in the gastropod assemblage of a macrophyte bed. American Malacological Bulletin 14 (1): 27–33.

[B06] Burgoyne, P. M. 2006. Review: Plants of the Simen. A flora of the Simen Mountains and surroundings, northern Ethiopia. Bothalia 36 (2): 253.

[CWC87] Cai C.-Y., Wen Y.-G. & Chen P.-Q. 1987. Archaeopteris florula from Upper Devonian of Xinhui County, central Guangdong and its stratigraphical significance. Acta Palaeontologica Sinica 26 (1): 55–64.

[C55a] Candolle, A. de. 1855a. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[C55b] Candolle, A. de. 1855b. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 2. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[CD07] Cantino, P. D., J. A. Doyle, S. W. Graham, W. S. Judd, R. G. Olmstead, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis & M. J. Donoghue. 2007. Towards a phylogenetic nomenclature of Tracheophyta. Taxon 56 (3): E1–E44.

[CK05] Chemeris, A. N., & N. M. Kovblyuk. 2005. A contribution to the knowledge of the harvestman fauna of the Crimea (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arthropoda Selecta 14 (4): 305–328.

[ChrPr02] Christopher, R. A., & D. C. Prowell. 2002. A palynological biozonation for the Maastrichtian stage (Upper Cretaceous) of South Carolina, USA. Cretaceous Research 23: 639–669.

[ChuPe02] Chung, S.-W., & C.-I. Peng. 2002. Senecio kuanshanensis (Asteraceae), a new species from southern Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica 43: 155–159.

[C52] Clarke, J. F. G. 1952. Host relationships of moths of the genera Depressaria and Agonopterix, with descriptions of new species. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 117 (7): 1–20.

[C93] Cleal, C. J. 1993. Pteridophyta. In: Benton, M. J. (ed.) The Fossil Record 2 pp. 779–794. Chapman & Hall: London.

[C78] Clunie, N. M. U. 1978. The vegetation. In: Womersley, J. S. (ed.) Handbooks of the Flora of Papua New Guinea vol. 1 pp. 1–11. Melbourne University Press: Carlton South (Australia).

[C74] Coineau, Y. 1974. Éléments pour une monographie morphologique, écologique et biologique des Caeculidae (Acariens). Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, nouvelle série, Série A, Zoologie 81: 1–299, 24 pls.

[CL85] Cokendolpher, J. C., & D. Lanfranco L. 1985. Opiliones from the Cape Horn Archipelago: New southern records for harvestmen. Journal of Arachnology 13: 311–319.

[C70] Common, I. F. B. 1970. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 765–866. Melbourne University Press.

[CS77] Cramp, S., & K. E. L. Simmons (eds) 1977. Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palaearctic vol. 1. Ostrich to Ducks. Oxford University Press: Oxford.

[DV06] Dalla Vecchia, F. M. 2006. A new sauropterygian reptile with plesiosaurian affinity from the Late Triassic of Italy. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia 112 (2): 207–225.

[Da07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[DDL04] Datta, P. M., D. P. Das & Z.-X. Luo. 2004. A Late Triassic dromatheriid (Synapsida: Cynodontia) from India. Annals of Carnegie Museum 73 (2): 12–24.

[DL94] Dinesen, L., T. Lehmberg, J. O. Svendsen, L. A. Hansen & J. Fjeldså. 1994. A new genus and species of perdicine bird (Phasianidae, Perdicini) from Tanzania, a relict form with Indo-Malayan affinities. Ibis 136: 2–11.

[DS86] Dixon, J. R., & P. Soini. 1986. The Reptiles of the Upper Amazon Basin, Iquitos Region, Peru. Milwaukee Public Museum: Milwaukee.

[D51] Dobzhansky, T. 1951. Genetics and the Origin of Species 3rd ed. Columbia University Press: New York.

[D98] Doyle, J. A. 1998. Phylogeny of vascular plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29: 567–599.

[Du07] Dunlop, J. A. 2007. Paleontology. In: Pinto-da-Rocha, R., G. Machado & G. Giribet (eds) Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones pp. 247–265. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[D03] Dusén, P. 1903. The vegetation of western Patagonia. In: Scott, W. B. (ed.) Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia, 1896–1899 vol. 8. Botany pp. 1–34. The University: Princeton (New Jersey).

[EBS98] Elliott, K. J., L. R. Boring & W. T. Swank. 1998. Changes in vegetation structure and diversity after grass-to-forest succession in a southern Appalachian watershed. American Midland Naturalist 140: 219–232.

[E09] Ensermu K. 2009. Three new species of Acanthaceae from Ethiopia. Kew Bulletin 64 (1): 57–65.

[FT05] Fayers, S. R., & N. H. Trewin. 2005. A hexapod from the Early Devonian Windyfield Chert, Rhynie, Scotland. Palaeontology 48 (5): 1117–1130.

[F55] Felten, H. 1955. Fledermäuse (Mammalia, Chiroptera) aus El Salvador. Teil 1. Senckenbergiana Biologica 36 (5–6): 271–285.

[FT93] Fensome, R. A., F. J. R. Taylor, G. Norris, W. A. S. Sarjeant, D. I. Wharton & G. L. Williams. 1993. A classification of living and fossil dinoflagellates. Micropaleontology Special Publication 7: i–viii, 1–351.

[F11] Fraga, R. M. 2011. Family Icteridae (New World blackbirds). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 684–807. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[G97] Gerrienne, P. 1997. The fossil plants from the Lower Devonian of Marchin (northern margin of Dinant Synclinorium, Belgium): V. Psilophyton genseliae sp. nov., with hypotheses on the origin of Trimerophytina. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 98: 303–324.

[G69] Goodwin, G. G. 1969. Mammals from the State of Oaxaca, Mexico, in the American Museum of Natural History. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 141 (1): 1–269, 40 pls.

[G10] Gordenko, N. V. 2010. Vladimariales ordo nov. (Gymnospermae) from the Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mikhailovskii rudnik locality (Kursk Region, European Russia). Paleontological Journal 44 (10): 1281–1307.

[G31] Grabau, A. W. 1931. The Permian of Mongolia: A report on the Permian fauna of the Jisu Honguer limestone of Mongolia and its relations to the Permian of other parts of the world. American Museum of Natural History: New York.

[GR98] Greuter, W., & T. Raus (eds.) 1998. Med-Checklist Notulae, 17. Willdenowia 28: 163–174.

[HK98] Hahn, A., & H. Kusserow. 1998. Spatial and temporal distribution of algae in soil crusts in the Sahel of W Africa: Preliminary results. Willdenowia 28: 227–238.

[HF03] Halperin, J., & J. Fremuth. 2003. Contribution to the knowledge of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) and their host plants in Israel. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 93–100.

[H57] Haupt, H. 1957. Eine spinnenartige Arthropode aus dem Rotliegenden: Rhabdotarachnoides simoni n. gen. n. sp. Hallesches Jahrbuch für mitteldeutsche Erdgeschichte 2 (4): 246–247.

[H09] Heltmann, H. 2009. Der Königstein (Piatra Craiului), die Perle der Burzenländer Gebirge. Mauritiana 20 (3): 515–527.

[I-BH-O10] Ibáñez-Bernal, S., & V. Hernández-Ortiz. 2010. Ropalomeridae (ropalomerid flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1025–1030. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[J06] Johnstone, R. E. 2006. The birds of Gag Island, Western Papuan islands, Indonesia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 23 (2): 115–132.

[JD05] Junge, F. W., M. Dolezych, H. Walther, T. Böttger, A. Kühl, L. Kunzmann, P. Morgenstern, T. Steinberg & R. Stange. 2005. Ein Fenster in Landschaft und Vegetation vor 37 Millionen Jahren: Lithologische, sedimentgeochemische und paläobotanische Befunde aus einem Paläoflusssystem des Weißelsterbeckens. Mauritiana 19 (2): 185–273.

[K01] Kenrick, P. 2001. Turning over a new leaf. Nature 410: 309–310.

[K67] Kesling, R. V. 1967. Cystoids. In: Moore, R. C. (ed.) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt. S. Echinodermata 1. General characters. Homalozoa–Crinozoa (except Crinoidea) vol. 1 pp. S85–S267. The Geological Society of America, Inc., and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[K68] Kinn, D. N. 1968. A new species of Pleuronectocelaeno (Acarina: Celaenopsidae) associated with bark beetles in North and Central America. Acarologia 9 (2): 191–205.

[KC01] Kirk, P. M., P. F. Cannon, J. C. David & J. A. Stalpers. 2001. Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi 9th ed. CAB International: Wallingford (UK).

[L98] Lienhard, C. 1998. Faune de France. France et Régions Limitrophes. 83. Psocoptères Euro-Méditerranéens. Fédération Française des Sociétés de Sciences Naturelles: Paris.

[MS98] Margulis, L., & K. V. Schwartz. 1998. Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on Earth 3rd ed. W. H. Freeman and Company: New York.

[MK08] Mockford, E. L., & P. D. Krushelnycky. 2008. New species and records of Liposcelis Motschulsky (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) from Hawaii with first description of the male of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. Zootaxa 1766: 53–68.

[M-FR08] Morais-Filho, J. C., & G. Q. Romero. 2008. Microhabitat use by Peucetia flava (Oxyopidae) on the glandular plant Rhyncanthera dichotoma (Melastomataceae). Journal of Arachnology 36 (2): 374–378.

[MF68] Moran, R., & R. Felger. 1968. Castela polyandra, a new species in a new section; union of Holacantha with Castela (Simaroubaceae). Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 15 (4): 31–40.

[ML13] Moro, D., & R. Lagdon. 2013. History and environment of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 1–8.

[M83] Myers, R. L. 1983. Site susceptibility to invasion by the exotic tree Melaleuca quinquenervia in southern Florida. Journal of Applied Ecology 20: 645–658.

[OB13] O'Leary, M. A., J. I. Bloch, J. J. Flynn, T. J. Gaudin, A. Giallombardo, N. P. Giannini, S. L. Goldberg, B. P. Kraatz, Z.-X. Luo, J. Meng, X. Ni, M. J. Novacek, F. A. Perini, Z. S. Randall, G. W. Rougier, E. J. Sargis, M. T. Silcox, N. B. Simmons, M. Spaulding, P. M. Velazco, M. Weksler, J. R. Wible & A. L. Cirranello. 2013. The placental mammal ancestor and the post-K-Pg radiation of placentals. Science 339: 662–667.

[OW01] Orchard, A. E., & A. J. G. Wilson (eds) 2001. Flora of Australia vol. 11A. Mimosaceae, Acacia part 1. Australian Biological Resources Study: Canberra.

[PAE98] Pakeman, R. J., J. P. Attwood & J. Engelen. 1998. Sources of plants colonizing experimentally disturbed patches in an acidic grassland, in eastern England. Journal of Ecology 86: 1032–1041.

[Par03] Parmar, P. J. 2003. Loss of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari in Indian desert. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 77–90.

[Pau03] Paul, T. K. 2003. Botanical observations on the Purulia pumped storage hydropower project area, Bagmundi Hills, Purulia district, West Bengal. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 45: 121–142.

[P-GR14] Pérez-González, A., M. J. Ramírez, E. M. Soto & J. Pizarro-Araya. 2014. First harvestman record for the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, with morphological notes on Acropsopilio chilensis (Opiliones: Caddidae: Acropsopilioninae). Zootaxa 3852 (3): 347–358.

[PS96] Pike, K. S., P. Starý, R. Miller, D. Allison, L. Boydston, G. Graf & T. Miller. 1996. New species and host records of aphid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) from the Pacific northwest, U.S.A. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 98 (3): 570–591.

[P65] Pletzen, R. van. 1965. Studies on the South African Oribatei (Acari). III. Further new species of the genus Scheloribates Berlese 1908. Acarologia 7 (1): 113–120.

[P92] Poinar, G. O., Jr. 1992. Life in Amber. Stanford University Press: Stanford.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[R87] Ratte, F. 1887. Notes on Australian fossils. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1065–1084, pls 15–17.

[R35] Rayment, T. 1935. A Cluster of Bees: Sixty essays on the life-histories of Australian bees, with specific descriptions of over 100 new species. Endeavour Press: Sydney.

[R56] Reed, C. F. 1956. Hyla cinerea in Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, with notes on the taxonomic status of Hyla cinerea evittata. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (10): 328–332.

[RC02] Riding, J. B., & J. A. Crame. 2002. Aptian to Coniacian (Early–Late Cretaceous) palynostratigraphy of the Gustav Group, James Ross Basin, Antarctica. Cretaceous Research 23: 739–760.

[RBA00] Rifai, L. B., M. Abu Baker & Z. S. Amr. 2000. Ecology, distribution and status of the rock hyrax, Procavia capensis syriaca, in Jordan. Zoology in the Middle East 21: 19–26.

[R96] Righi, G. 1996. Colombian earthworms. Studies on Tropical Andean Ecosystems 4: 485–607.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

[RL96] Rogers, G. M., & J. R. Leathwick. 1996. North Island seral tussock grasslands. 3. The influence of heather (Calluna vulgaris) on rates of change from tussock grassland to shrubland. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 473–487.

[R79] Ross, C. A. 1979. Carboniferous. In: Robison, R. A., & C. Teichert (eds) Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology pt A. Introduction. Fossilisation (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy pp. A254–A290. The Geological Society of America, Inc.: Boulder (Colorado), and The University of Kansas: Lawrence (Kansas).

[RS99] Rossman, A. Y., G. J. Samuels, C. T. Rogerson & R. Lowen. 1999. Genera of Bionectriaceae, Hypocreaceae and Nectriaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycetes). Studies in Mycology 42: 1–248.

[S98] Salmeri, C. 1998. Allium brulloi (Alliaceae), a new species from Astypalea (Aegean Islands, Greece). Willdenowia 28: 69–76.

[SN08] Schmidt, E. R., & T. R. New. 2008. The Psocoptera (Insecta) of Tasmania, Australia. Memoirs of Museum Victoria 65: 71–152.

[Sc00] Schweitzer, H. J. 2000. Neue Pflanzenfunde im Unterdevon der Eifel (Deutschland). Senckenbergiana Lethaea 80 (2): 371–395.

[Si00] Siddiqi, M. R. 2000. Tylenchida: Parasites of plants and insects 2nd ed. CABI Publishing: Wallingford (UK).

[SM90] Smith, G. T., & S. R. Morton. 1990. Responses by scorpions to fire-initiates succession in arid Australian spinifex grasslands. Journal of Arachnology 18: 241–244.

[SWK87] Snyder, N. F. R., J. W. Wiley & C. B. Kepler. 1987. The Parrots of Luquillo: Natural history and conservation of the Puerto Rican parrot. Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology: Los Angeles.

[S89] Squinabol, S. 1889. Res Ligusticae. VII.—Cenno preliminare sulla flora fossile di Santa Giustina. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 73–76.

[SBG97] Starý, J., W. Block & P. Greenslade. 1997. Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) of sub-Antarctic Heard Island. Journal of Natural History 31: 545–553.

[SP12] Steemans, P., E. Petus, P. Breuer, P. Mauller-Mendlowicz & P. Gerrienne. 2012. Palaeozoic innovations in the micro- and megafossil plant record: from the earliest plant spores to the earliest seeds. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 437–477. Springer.

[S77] Steenis, C. G. G. J. van. 1977. Bignoniaceae. Flora Malesiana, Series I—Spermatophyta, Flowering Plants 8 (2): 114–186.

[S87] Stephens, W. J. 1887. On the Biloela labyrinthodont (second notice). Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1113–1121, pl. 14.

[SC-S05] Stotler, R. E., & B. Crandall-Stotler. 2005. A revised classification of the Anthocerotophyta and a checklist of the hornworts of North America, north of Mexico. Bryologist 108 (1): 16–26.

[TLT98] Tchemeris, A. N., D. V. Logunov & N. Tsurusaki. 1998. A contribution to the knowledge of the harvestman fauna of Siberia (Arachnida: Opiliones). Arthropoda Selecta 7 (3): 189–199.

[TW07] Thongphak, D., & Q. Wang. 2007. Taxonomic revision of the longicorn beetle genus Uracanthus Hope 1833 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Cerambycinae: Uracanthini) from Australia. Zootaxa 1569: 1–139.

[TMD02] Tosolini, A.-M. P., S. McLoughlin & A. N. Drinnan. 2002. Early Cretaceous megaspore assemblages from southeastern Australia. Cretaceous Research 23: 807–844.

[TM96] Tsunoda, T., & K. Mori. 1996. Seasonal activity of a few sympatric ticks (Ixodidae) on plants. In: Mitchell, R., D. J. Horn, G. R. Needham & W. C. Welbourn (eds) Acarology IX vol. 1. Proceedings pp. 37–41. Ohio Biological Survey: Columbus (Ohio).

[V12] Vajda, V. 2012. Fungi, a driving force in normalization of the terrestrial carbon cycle following the end-Cretaceous extinction. In: Talent, J. A. (ed.) Earth and Life: Global biodiversity, extinction intervals and biogeographic perturbations through time pp. 811–817. Springer.

[VH02] Vallejo, C., P. A. Hochuli, W. Winkler & K. von Salis. 2002. Palynological and sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Napo Group in the Pungarayacu 30 well, sub-Andean zone, Ecuador. Cretaceous Research 23: 845–859.

[V02] Vánky, K. 2002. The smut fungi of the world. A survey. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 49 (2–3): 163–175.

[VB02] Vijaya & T. K. Bhattacharji. 2002. An Early Cretaceous age for the Rajmahal traps, Panagarh area, West Bengal: Palynological evidence. Cretaceous Research 23: 789–805.

[WPL96] Walsh, S. L., D. R. Prothero & D. J. Lundquist. 1996. Stratigraphy and paleomagnetism of the Middle Eocene Friars Formation and Poway Group, southwestern San Diego County, California. In: Prothero, D. R., & R. J. Emry (eds) The Terrestrial Eocene–Oligocene Transition in North America pp. 120–154. Cambridge University Press.

[WO95] Walter, D. E., & D. J. O'Dowd. 1995. Beneath biodiversity: factors influencing the diversity and abundance of canopy mites. Selbyana 16 (1): 12–20.

[W97] Wang N. 1997. Restudy of thelodont microfossils from the lower part of the Cuifengshan Group of Qujing, eastern Yunnan, China. Vertebrata PalAsiatica 35 (1): 1–17.

[WT04] Warren, A., & S. Turner. 2004. The first stem tetrapod from the Lower Carboniferous of Gondwana. Palaeontology 47: 151–184.

[WS02] Whitmore, C., R. Slotov, T. E. Crouch & A. S. Dippenaar-Schoeman. 2002. Diversity of spiders (Araneae) in a savanna reserve, Northern Province, South Africa. Journal of Arachnology 30 (2): 344–356.

[WM14] Wickett, N. H., S. Mirarab, N. Nguyen, T. Warnow, E. Carpenter, N. Matasci, S. Ayyampalayam, M. S. Barker, J. G. Burleigh, M. A. Gitzendanner, B. R. Ruhfel, E. Wafula, J. P. Der, S. W. Graham, S. Mathews, M. Melkonian, D. E. Soltis, P. S. Soltis, N. W. Miles, C. J. Rothfels, L. Pokorny, A. J. Shaw, L. DeGeronimo, D. W. Stevenson, B. Surek, J. C. Villarreal, B. Roure, H. Philippe, C. W. dePamphilis, T. Chen, M. K. Deyholos, R. S. Baucom, T. M. Kutchan, M. M. Augustin, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Tian, Z. Yan, X. Wu, X. Sun, G. K.-S. Wong & J. Leebens-Mack. 2014. Phylotranscriptomic analysis of the origin and early diversification of land plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 111 (45): E4859–E4868.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

[W92] Wilson, E. O. 1992. The Diversity of Life. Harvard University Press: Belknap (USA).

[W86] Wood, S. L. 1986. A reclassification of the genera of Scolytidae (Coleoptera). Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs 10: 1–126.

[YB02] Yi, S., & D. J. Batten. 2002. Palynology of Upper Cretaceous (uppermost Campanian-Maastrichtian) deposits in the South Yellow Sea Basin, offshore Korea. Cretaceous Research 23: 687–706.

[ZP86] Zhang, R., & J. Pojeta, Jr. 1986. New bivalves from the Datang Stage, Lower Carboniferous, Guangdong Province, China. Journal of Paleontology 60 (3): 669–679.

[ZB03] Zhao, J.-H., F.-Y. Bai, Q.-M. Wang & J.-H. Jia. 2003. Sporobolomyces bannaensis, a novel ballistoconidium-forming yeast species in the Sporidiobolus lineage. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 53: 2091–2093.

[ZA02] Zhu, M., P. E. Ahlberg, W. Zhao & L. Jia. 2002. First Devonian tetrapod from Asia. Nature 420: 760–761.

Last updated: 9 January 2022.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Markup Key:
- <b>bold</b> = bold
- <i>italic</i> = italic
- <a href="http://www.fieldofscience.com/">FoS</a> = FoS