Striped hyaena Hyaena hyaena, copyright Balaji Venkatesh Sivaramakrishnan.

Belongs within: Aeluroidea.

The Hyaenidae, hyaenas, are cursorial carnivores known from Africa and Eurasia, with fossil representatives in North America. Hyaenas have relatively short bodies with conspicuously down-sloping backs, and are conspicuously marked with stripes or spots.

    |--Crocuta FS15
    |    |--C. crocuta RB84
    |    |    |--C. c. crocuta RB84
    |    |    `--C. c. spelaea RB84
    |    |--C. eximia K54
    |    |--C. honanensis DW04
    |    `--C. variabilis K54
    `--+--Proteles cristatus (Sparrman 1783) FS15, V10
       `--Hyaena FS15
            |--H. abronia S78
            |--H. bellax S78
            |--H. brunnea S78
            |--H. hyaena (Linnaeus 1758) DC02
            |    |--H. h. hyaena USDI77
            |    `--H. h. barbara USDI77
            |--H. priscus ME05
            `--H. striata K54

Hyaenidae incertae sedis:
  Parahyaena brunnea YC04
  Hyaenictis preforfex S78
  Leecyaena forfex [=Hyaenictis forfex] S78
  Progenetta S78
  Miohyaena certa K54
  Chasmaporthetes YC04
    |--C. ossifragus V91
    `--C. progressus DW04
  Euryboas S78
    |--E. namaquensis [=Hyaena namaquensis, Lycyaena namaquensis] S78
    `--E. silberbergi [=Lycyaena silberbergi] S78
  Pachycrocuta ME05
    |--P. brevirostris ME05
    |--P. licenti DW04
    `--P. sinensis DW04
  Percrocuta Schlosser 1903 S78, D07
    |--P. algeriensis [=Hyaena algeriensis] S78
    |--P. australis Hendey 1974 S78
    |--P. gigantea D07
    |--P. hebiensis D07
    |--P. miocenica D07
    |--P. tobieni Crusafont & Aguirre 1971 S78
    `--P. tungurensis D07
  Ictitherium Wagner 1848 (see below for synonymy) K54
    |  i. s.: I. arkesilai D07
    |         I. ibericum D07
    |         I. intuberculatum D07
    |         I. kurteni D07
    |         I. orbignyi K54
    |         I. pannonicum D07
    |--+--I. hipparionum [=Hyaena hipparionum] K54
    |  `--I. wongii K54 [=Hyaenictitherium wongii DW04]
    `--+--I. robustum (Nordmann ex Gervais 1858) (see below for synonymy) K54
       |    |--I. r. robustum K54
       |    `--I. r. tauricum K54
       `--+--I. gaudryi K54
          `--+--I. hyaenoides K54 [=Hyaenictitherium hyaenoides DW04]
             |--I. indicum K54
             `--I. sivalense K54

Inorganic: Proteles cristatus minilorientalus Okamura 1987 O87

Ictitherium Wagner 1848 [incl. Galeotherium Wagner 1840 non Jäger 1839, Hyaenictitherium Kretzoi 1937, Lepthyaena Lydekker 1884, Palhyaena Gervais 1859, Sinictitherium Kretzoi 1937, Thalassictis Nordmann ex Gervais 1850] K54

Ictitherium robustum (Nordmann ex Gervais 1858) [=Thalassictis robusta; incl. T. gracilis Hensel 1862, Ictitherium viverrinum Roth & Wagner 1854] K54

*Type species of generic name indicated


[DC02] De, J. K., & R. Chakraborty. 2002. Identification of dorsal guard hairs of striped hyena Hyaena hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758) Hyaenidae: Carnivora: Mammalia. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 99 (3): 502–506.

[DW04] Deng T., Wang X., Ni X. & Liu L. 2004. Sequence of the Cenozoic mammalian faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 78 (1): 8–14.

[D07] Dixon, D. 2007. The Complete Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric Creatures. Hermes House: London.

[FS15] Faurby, S., & J.-C. Svenning. 2015. A species-level phylogeny of all extant and late Quaternary extinct mammals using a novel heuristic-hierarchical Bayesian approach. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 84: 14–26.

[K54] Kurtén, B. 1954. The type collection of Ictitherium robustum (Gervais, ex Nordmann) and the radiation of the ictitheres. Acta Zoologica Fennica 86: 1–26.

[ME05] Moullé, P.-E., A. Echassoux, F. Lacombat, E. Desclaux & S. Bailon. 2005. L’environnement animal des premiers habitants de l’Europe méditerranéenne: les grands mammifères contemporains de l’homme du Vallonnet, données taxonomiques et biostratigraphiques pour la deuxième moitie du Pléistocène inférieur. BAR International Series 1364: 105–113.

[O87] Okamura, C. 1987. New facts: Homo and all Vertebrata were born simultaneously in the former Paleozoic in Japan. Original Report of the Okamura Fossil Laboratory 15: 347–573.

[RB84] Richardson, P. K. R., & S. K. Bearder. 1984. The hyaena family. In: Macdonald, D. (ed.) All the World’s Animals: Carnivores pp. 146–151. Torstar Books Inc.: New York.

[S78] Savage, R. J. G. 1978. Carnivora. In: Maglio, V. J., & H. B. S. Cooke (eds) Evolution of African Mammals pp. 249–267. Harvard University Press: Cambridge (Massachusetts).

[USDI77] USDI (United States Department of the Interior). 1977. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants—republication of list of species. Federal Register 42: 36420–36431.

[V91] Valkenburgh, B. van. 1991. Iterative evolution of hypercarnivory in canids (Mammalia: Carnivora): evolutionary interactions among sympatric predators. Paleobiology 17 (4): 340–362.

[V10] Vršanský, P. 2010. Cockroach as the earliest eusocial animal. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 84 (4): 793–808.

[YC04] Yamaguchi, N., A. Cooper, L. Werdelin & D. W. Macdonald. 2004. Evolution of the mane and group-living in the lion (Panthera leo): a review. Journal of Zoology 263: 329–342.

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