Flat sea holly Eryngium planum, copyright Bernard Dupont.

Belongs within: Apiaceae.

The Saniculeae are a group of umbelliferous plants characterised by fruits with a minutely ornamented surface, two mericarps, and a non-lignified endocarp composed of a single cell layer (Liu et al. 2003). Members include the genus Eryngium, sea hollies, herbs with hairless, mostly spiny leaves and white or blue flowers borne in dome-shaped umbels with whorls of spiny basal bracts.

    |--Alepidea LWT03
    |    |--A. amatymbica LWT03
    |    `--A. setifera LWT03
    `--+--Hacquetia epipactis LWT03
       `--+--+--Actinolema macrolema LWT03
          |  `--Astrantia LWT03
          |       |--A. major LWT03
          |       `--A. maxima LWT03
          |--Sanicula LWT03
          |    |--S. arctopoides H93
          |    |--S. arguta [incl. S. simulans] H93
          |    |--S. bipinnata H93
          |    |--S. bipinnatifida H93
          |    |--S. coerulescens LWT03
          |    |--S. crassicaulis H93
          |    |--S. elata D07
          |    |--S. europaea LWT03
          |    |--S. graveolens H93
          |    |--S. gregaria K03
          |    |--S. hoffmannii H93
          |    |--S. laciniata H93
          |    |--S. lamelligera LWT03
          |    |--S. maritima H93
          |    |--S. peckiana H93
          |    |--S. rubriflora LWT03
          |    |--S. saxatilis H93
          |    |--S. tracyi H93
          |    `--S. tuberosa H93
          `--Eryngium Linnaeus 1753 LWT03, A61
               |--E. alismaefolium H93
               |--E. aristulatum H93
               |    |--E. a. var. aristulatum H93
               |    |--E. a. var. hooveri H93
               |    `--E. a. var. parishii H93
               |--E. armatum H93
               |--E. articulatum H93
               |--E. campestre Linnaeus 1753 PL04
               |--E. castrense H93
               |--E. constancei H93
               |--E. foetidum BB07
               |--E. giganteum LWT03
               |--E. horridum RJ11
               |--E. maritimum LWT03
               |--E. mathiasiae H93
               |--E. pinnatifidum GK00
               |--E. pinnatisectum H93
               |--E. plantagineum M99
               |--E. planum LWT03
               |--E. racemosum H93
               |--E. spina-alba C55
               |--E. spinosepalum [incl. E. vaseyi var. globosum] H93
               |--E. triquetrum B28
               |--E. vaseyi [incl. E. vaseyi var. vallicola] H93
               `--E. vesiculosum Labill. 1804 A61

*Type species of generic name indicated


[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[BB07] Baishya, A. K., & P. J. Bora. 2007. Cross community ethno-medico botany of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 121–154.

[B28] Betrem, J. G. 1928. Monographie der Indo-Australischen Scoliiden mit zoogeographischen Betrachtungen. H. Veenman & Zonen: Wageningen.

[C55] Candolle, A. de. 1855. Géographie Botanique Raisonée: Ou exposition des faits principaux et des lois concernant la distribution géographique des plantes de l’époque actuelle vol. 1. Librairie de Victor Masson: Paris.

[D07] Dash, S. S. 2007. Useful plants of Kabi Sacred Grove, Sikkim. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 49: 79–88.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H93] Hickman, J. C. (ed.) 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press: Berkeley (California).

[K03] Kårehed, J. 2003. The family Pennantiaceae and its relationships to Apiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141: 1–24.

[LWT03] Liu, M., B-E. van Wyk & P. M. Tilney. 2003. The taxonomic value of fruit structure in the subfamily Saniculoideae and related African genera (Apiaceae). Taxon 52: 261–270.

[M99] Matthews, M. 1999. Heliothine Moths of Australia: A guide to bollworms and related noctuid groups. CSIRO Publishing.

[PL04] Pohl, G., & I. Lenski. 2004. Zur Verbreitung und Vergesellschaftung von Pennisetum orientale Rich. in Nordeuböa (Griechenland) (Poaceae, Paniceae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 83 (2): 209–223.

[RJ11] Rising, J. D., A. Jaramillo, J. L. Copete, P. G. Ryan & S. C. Madge. 2011. Family Emberizidae (buntings and New World sparrows). In: Hoyo, J. del, A. Elliott & D. A. Christie (eds) Handbook of the Birds of the World vol. 16. Tanagers to New World Blackbirds pp. 428–683. Lynx Edicions: Barcelona.

Last updated: 22 March 2020.

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