Culicoidini

Culicoides obsoletus, from here.


Belongs within: Ceratopogonidae.

The Culicoidini are a group of biting midges whose females feed on the blood of vertebrates, with some Culicoides species being vectors of parasites or viruses.

Characters (from Downes & Wirth 1981): Female antenna with 13 flagellomeres. Prescutal pits prominent. Wing with macrotrichia usually abundant; cell r1 and cell r2+3 both usually well-developed, similar in size; M forking beyond crossvein r-m, medial fork petiolate. Empodia small; claws of both sexes small, equal, and simple.

<==Culicoidini DW81
    |--Paradasyhelea DW81
    |    |--P. minuta DW81
    |    `--P. olympiae DW81
    `--Culicoides BSG09
         |  i. s.: C. angularis CM91
         |         C. anophelis A71
         |         C. antennalis CM91
         |         C. arubae BSG09
         |         C. austeni A71
         |         C. barbosai BSG09
         |         C. brevitarsis CM91
         |         C. castillae WB56
         |         C. equatoriensis WB56
         |         C. filarifer BSG09
         |         C. foxi BSG09
         |         C. furens A71
         |         C. gabaldoni WB56
         |         C. grahami A71
         |         C. impunctatus A71
         |         C. inornatipennis A71
         |         C. insignis M90
         |         C. insinuatus Ortiz & Leon 1955 WB56
         |         C. marmoratus CM74
         |         C. ornatus L91
         |         C. paraensis E83
         |         C. phlebotomus BMW09
         |         C. pseudodiabolicus BSG09
         |         C. pulicaris A71
         |         C. pusillus BSG09
         |         C. yoosti GE05
         |         C. debilipalpis group WB56
         |           |--C. dasyophrus Macfie 1940 WB56
         |           |--C. debilipalpis [incl. C. debilipalpis var. glabrior Macfie 1940] WB56
         |           |--C. germanus Macfie 1940 WB56
         |           |--C. hoffmani Fox 1946 WB56
         |           `--C. trilineatus Fox 1946 WB56
         |--C. (Culicoides) yukonensis M90
         |--C. (Avaritia) obsoletus DW81
         |--C. (Beltranmyia) crepuscularis DW81
         |--C. (Diphaomyia) haematopotus DW81
         |--C. (Drymodesmyia) copiosus DW81
         |--C. (Monoculicoides) variipennis M90
         `--C. (Selfia) hieroglyphicus DW81

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BSG09] Borkent, A., G. R. Spinelli & W. L. Grogan Jr. 2009. Ceratopogonidae (biting midges, purrujas). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 407–435. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[BMW09] Brown, B. V., S. A. Marshall & D. M. Wood. 2009. Natural history. In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 51–63. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[DW81] Downes, J. A., & W. W. Wirth. 1981. Ceratopogonidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 393–421. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[E83] Ewald, P. W. 1983. Host-parasite relations, vectors, and the evolution of disease severity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 14: 465–485.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[L91] Liehne, P. F. S. 1991. An Atlas of the Mosquitoes of Western Australia. Health Department of Western Australia.

[M90] McAlpine, J. F. 1990. Insecta: Diptera adults. In: Dindal, D. L. (ed.) Soil Biology Guide pp. 1211–1252. John Wiley & Sones: New York.

[WB56] Wirth, W. W., & F. S. Blanton. 1956. Redescriptions of four species of Neotropical Culicoides of the debilipalpis group (Diptera: Heleidae). Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 46 (6): 186–190.

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