Acroceridae

Ogcodes sp., copyright Donald Hobern.


Belongs within: Orthorrhapha.

The Acroceridae, small-headed flies, are a group of flies that develop as endoparasitoids of spiders. As indicated by the vernacular name, the head is small and mostly taken up by the enlarged, often holoptic compound eyes.

Characters (from Schlinger 1981): Small to large flies, 2.5-21 mm long. Head small to medium-sized, consisting mostly of large compound eyes. Abdomen globose, globose-elongate, or narrow and tapering or parallel-sided; color dull or shiny and often bright metallic green, blue, red, or purple, or sometimes brown, black, orange, yellow, or white with maculations on abdomen and with vittae on mesonotum. Some species bee-like, others wasp-like, and some even beetle-like, many appearing to be mimics. Family characterised by following combination of morphological structures: three-segmented antenna, small head, large calypter, pulvilliform empodia, simple unbranched R2, and body without bristles.

Acroceridae [Cyrtidae, Inflata] S09
    |--Acrocytinae S09
    |--Philopotinae S09
    |    |--Philopota truquii S09
    |    |--Prophilopota succinea S81
    |    |--Eulonchiella eocenica S81
    |    |--Megalybus S09
    |    `--Thyllis splendens S09, S81
    |--Panopinae S09
    |    |--Eulonchus halli S09
    |    |--Ocnaea smithi S09
    |    |--Pialea ecuadorensis S09, S81
    |    |--Rhysogaster S81
    |    |--Panops bandinii G20
    |    |--Apelleia S09
    |    |    |--A. grossa S09
    |    |    `--A. vittata S09
    |    |--Lasia S09
    |    |    |--L. colei S09
    |    |    |--L. purpurata S09
    |    |    `--L. rostrata S09
    |    `--Pterodontia S09
    |         |--P. flavipes A71
    |         |--P. misella S81
    |         |--P. vix S09
    |         `--P. westwoodi S09
    `--Acrocerinae S09
         |--Villalites electrica S81
         |--Glaesoncodes completinervis S81
         |--Turbopsebius Schlinger 1972 S81
         |    |--*T. diligens [=Opsebius diligens] S81
         |    `--T. sulphuripes S81
         |--Acrocera S09
         |    |--A. bimaculata S81
         |    |--A. bulla S81
         |    |--A. convexa S09
         |    |--A. globulus A71
         |    |--A. hirsuta S81
         |    |--A. sanguinea G20
         |    `--A. subfasciata S81
         `--Ogcodes Latreille 1802 L02
              |  i. s.: O. basalis WT11
              |--O. (Ogcodes) S09
              |    |--*O. (O.) gibbosus [=Syrphus gibbosus] L02
              |    |--O. (O.) adaptatus S81
              |    |--O. (O.) borealis S81
              |    |--O. (O.) colei S81
              |    |--O. (O.) dispar S09
              |    |--O. (O.) eugonatus S09
              |    `--O. (O.) pallidipennis S09
              `--O. (Neogcodes) albiventris S81

Acroceridae incertae sedis:
  Sabroskya S81
  Protogcodes S81
  Hadrogaster S81
  Nipponcyrtus S81
  Meruia S81
  Dimacrocolus pauliani S81
  Camposella S81
  Villalus S81
  Archipialea S81
  Arrhynchus S81
  Exetasis eickstedtae S09
  Psilodera R01
    |--P. bipunctata R01
    |--P. cingulata R01
    `--P. fasciatus Widem. 1819 [=Cyrtus fasciatus, P. fasciata; incl. P. capensis] R01
  Leucopsina odyneroides C91
  Terphis S81
  Panocalda CM91
  Mesophysa CM91
  Cyrtus Latreille 1802 L02
    |--*C. acephalus [=Empis acephala] L02
    `--C. gibbus G20
  Neopanops O98
  Plagiocera haemorrhoa Gerst. 1873 R01
  Asarkina salviae Fabr. 1794 R01

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[G20] Goldfuss, G. A. 1820. Handbuch der Naturgeschichte vol. 3. Handbuch der Zoologie pt 1. Johann Leonhard Schrag: Nürnberg.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[O98] Oosterbroek, P. 1998. The Families of Diptera of the Malay Archipelago. Brill: Leiden.

[R01] Ricardo, G. 1901. Notes on Diptera from South Africa (concluded). Annals and Magazine of Natural History, series 7, 7: 89–110.

[S81] Schlinger, E. I. 1981. Acroceridae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 575–584. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S09] Schlinger, E. I. 2009. Acroceridae (spider flies, small-headed flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 551–556. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Last updated: 1 January 2021.

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