Psychodoidea

Male Protoplasa fitchii, from Alexander (1981).


Belongs within: Psychodomorpha.
Contains: Phlebotominae, Psychodinae.

The Psychodoidea are a clade uniting the moth flies and sand flies of the Psychodidae with the primitive crane flies of the Tanyderidae.

Synapomorphies (from Blagoderov et al. 2002): Ocelli absent; sc-r terminal; M2 convex; male genitalia inverted.

<==Psychodoidea BLM02
    |--Tanyderidae [Tanyderoidea, Tanyderomorpha] BLM02
    |    |--Praemacrochile BLM02
    |    |--Peringueyomyina A81
    |    |--Protoplasa fitchii A81
    |    |--Nothoderus australiensis M81
    |    |--Protanyderus margarita A81
    |    |--Macrochile A81
    |    |--Radinoderus occidentalis CM91
    |    `--Eutanyderus CM91
    |         |--E. oreonympha CM91
    |         `--E. wilsoni CM91
    `--Psychodidae WI-B09
         |  i. s.: Eopericoma zherichini S02
         |         Tanypsycha GE05
         |         Liassopsychodina GE05
         |         Psychotanyderus GE05
         |         Bazarella WI-B09
         |--Nannotanyderus WT11
         `--+--Phlebotominae QV81
            |--Psychodinae QV81
            |--Sycoracinae WI-B09
            |    |--Sycorax QV81
            |    |--Aposycorax chilensis WI-B09
            |    `--Parasycorax WI-B09
            |--Trichomyia [Trichomyiinae] QV81
            |    |--T. nuda QV81
            |    `--T. urbica QV81
            |--Bruchomyiinae QV81
            |    |--Bruchomyia QV81
            |    `--Nemapalpus WI-B09
            |         |--N. nearcticus QV81
            |         `--N. youngi WI-B09
            `--Horaiella [Horaiellinae] WI-B09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A81] Alexander, C. P. 1981. Tanyderidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 149–151. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[M81] McAlpine, J. F. 1981. Morphology and terminology—adults. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 9–63. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[QV81] Quate, L. W., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1981. Psychodidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 293–300. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[S02] Sinitshenkova, N. D. 2002. Ecological history of the aquatic insects. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 388–426. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[WI-B09] Wagner, R., & S. Ibáñez-Bernal. 2009. Psychodidae (sand flies, and moth flis or owl flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 319–335. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

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