Stratiomyidae

Barred snout Nemotelus uliginosus, copyright David Gould.


Belongs within: Stratiomyomorpha.
Contains: Stratiomyini, Oxycerini.

The Stratiomyidae, soldier flies, are an ecologically diverse group of often colourful flies.

Characters (from James 1981): Slender to quite robust flies, 2-18 mm long. Colour usually yellow, green, blue, or black, sometimes metallic, frequently with variegated color patterns particularly on abdomen. Bristles not developed, though body, especially thorax, sometimes densely pilose. Head usually as broad as thorax but sometimes broader, hemispherical to spherical. Occipital (postocular) orbit often well-developed, especially in female. Eyes ranging from bare to densely hairy, widely separated in female, more narrowly separated or contiguous in male, each eye in male often divided into an upper area comprising large facets and a lower area of small facets; ocelli present. Antenna inserted at or below middle of head; scape and pedicel unmodified except in respect to elongation; flagellum consisting of five to eight flagellomeres. Proboscis usually fleshy, sometimes atrophied, sometimes elongated, never adapted for sucking blood; palpus one- or two-segmented, not conspicuous. Thorax rectangular-oval in dorsal outline, sometimes elongated. Scutellum sometimes with one to three pairs of apical spines. Wing well-developed (rarely absent); C not reaching beyond apex of wing; stronger veins crowded anteriorly; branches of R always meeting wing margin well before wing apex; Rs usually arising from R1 shortly before base of cell d or dm; R4 short, often indistinct or wanting; veins toward posterior margin of wing weak, tending to evanesce. Legs simple, at most with certain segrnents or tarsomeres inflated or elongated, never densely pilose; fore coxa never unusually elongated; pulvilli and empodia pad-like; tibial spurs only rarely developed. Abdomen composed of five to eight visible segments, with the remaining segments telescoped into visible ones or forming terminalia; outline from dorsal view varying from almost round to elongate-oval, sometimes petiolate or spatulate; vestiture moderate, never dense. Male terminalia usually small, rather simple; surstylus simple and ventral; aedeagus two- or three-pronged; cercus simple. Terminal female segments forming at most a simple weakly developed ovipositor. Larva elongated, flattened, composed of head capsule and ll body segments; integument shagreened from deposit of calcium carbonate plates; head capsule well-developed, although broadly open posteroventrally, retracted more than half its length within thorax, but not functionally retractile; anterior exposed portion elongated and narrow except for ocular prominences, broadened posteriorly; mandible and maxilla more or less completely fused, operating vertically; maxillary palpus distinct; no free pharyngeal skeleton within head capsule; antenna usually located anterolaterally. Prothorax broader than head, with remainder of body either parallel-sided to near apex or attaining maximum width at abdominal segment 2; prominent lateral spiracles present on prothorax; lateral spiracles sometimes present on metathorax and on abdominal segments l-6 or 1-7, but small and probably not functional; posterior spiracles functional, located in transverse cleft on terminal abdominal segment; prolegs lacking, although ventral hooks sometimes present, especially on penultimate or antepenultimate segment, or both. Pupation occurring within last larval integument.

Stratiomyidae J81
    |  i. s.: Barbiellinia Bezzi 1922 K03
    |           `--*B. hirta Bezzi 1922 K03
    |         Cretaceogaster pygmaeus GE05
    |         Montsecia martinezdelclosi GE05
    |         Syndipnomyia auricincta C91
    |         Lysozus W09
    |         Pedinocera W09
    |         Exaireta spiniger CM91
    |         Neoexaireta spinigera CM70
    |--Parhadrestiinae BLM02
    |--Chrysochlorina J81 [Chrysochlorininae W09]
    |    |--C. haterius W09
    |    `--C. quadrilineata J81
    |--Chiromyzinae W09
    |    |--Chiromyza vittata W09
    |    |--Boreoides subulatus CM91
    |    `--Inopus J81 [incl. Altermetoponia CM74]
    |         `--I. rubriceps (Macquart 1847) H82 [=Altermetoponia rubriceps CM70]
    |--Hermetiinae [Hermetiini] W09
    |    |--Chaetohermetia apicalis W09
    |    `--Hermetia W09
    |         |--H. albitarsis W09
    |         |--H. flavipes W09
    |         `--H. illucens J81
    |--Stratiomyinae J81
    |    |--Stratiomyini J81
    |    |--Oxycerini J81
    |    `--Prosopochrysini [Myxosargini] W09
    |         |--Nothomyia parvicornis J81
    |         `--Myxosargus J81
    |              |--M. knowltoni J81
    |              `--M. nigricornis J81
    |--Raphiocerinae W09
    |    |--Raphiocera armata W09
    |    |--Analcoceroides longicornis W09
    |    |--Brachythrix dileucostigma W09
    |    |--Anisoscapus chlorovittatus W09
    |    |--Neanalcocerus hortulanus W09
    |    |--Phanerozus pampinus W09
    |    |--Heptozus hansoni W09
    |    |--Dolichothrix melanothroax W09
    |    `--Histiodroma caloptera [=Raphiocera caloptera] W09
    |--Beridinae J81
    |    |--Allognosta J81
    |    |--Actina viridis J81
    |    |--Arcuavena W09
    |    |--Heteracanthia ruficornis W09
    |    |--Beridella W09
    |    |--Berismyia W09
    |    |--Paraberismyia W09
    |    |--Oplachantha W09
    |    `--Beris Latreille 1802 L02
    |         |--*B. sexdentata [=Stratiomys sexdentata] L02
    |         |--B. annulifera J81
    |         `--B. fuscipes K01
    |--Nemotelinae J81
    |    |--Akronia frontosa J81
    |    |--Brachycara W09
    |    |    |--B. maculata W09
    |    |    `--B. slossonae W09
    |    `--Nemotelus J81
    |         |--N. albirostris J81
    |         |--N. canadensis J81
    |         |--N. (Camptopelta) glaber W09
    |         |--N. kansensis J81
    |         |--N. signatus K01
    |         |--N. uliginosus L02
    |         |--N. varius K01
    |         `--N. zichyi Kertész 1901 K01
    |--Sarginae J81
    |    |--Chloromyia formosa J81
    |    |--Acrochaeta mexicana W09
    |    |--Himantigera W09
    |    |--Lobisquama barbata W09
    |    |--Microchrysa J81
    |    |    |--M. bicolor W09
    |    |    `--M. polita J81
    |    |--Cephalochrysa J81
    |    |    |--C. nigricornis J81
    |    |    `--C. texana W09
    |    |--Ptecticus J81
    |    |    |--P. testaceus W09
    |    |    `--P. trivittatus J81
    |    |--Merosargus J81
    |    |    |--M. cingulatus J81
    |    |    `--M. mirabilis W09
    |    `--Sargus [incl. Eumenogastrina] W09
    |         |  i. s.: S. flavilatus W09
    |         |         S. hypoleon [=Stratiomys hypoleon] L02
    |         |         S. linearis W09
    |         |         S. thoracicus W09
    |         |--S. (Sargus) cuprarius J81
    |         `--S. (Pedicellina) fasciatus J81 [incl. *Eumenogastrina angusta W09]
    |--Clitellariinae [Antissinae, Clitellariini] J81
    |    |--Antissa cuprea J81, ZS10
    |    |--Exodontha luteipes W09 [=Antissa luteipes J81]
    |    |--Dieuryneura stigma J81
    |    |--Grypomyia W09
    |    |--Acropeltates kerteszi W09
    |    |--Auloceromyia vespiformis W09
    |    |--Chordonota W09
    |    |--Labocerina atrata W09
    |    |--Leucoptilum W09
    |    |--Abavus W09
    |    |--Dicyphoma J81
    |    |    |--*D. schaefferi W09
    |    |    `--D. ryckmani W09
    |    |--Diaphorostylus W09
    |    |    |--D. flavipes W09
    |    |    `--D. interruptus W09
    |    |--Ditylometopa W09
    |    |    |--D. elegans W09
    |    |    `--D. rufifrons W09
    |    |--Quichuamyia W09
    |    |    |--Q. aplanatantennae W09
    |    |    `--Q. costaricensis W09
    |    |--Adoxomyia J81
    |    |    |--A. fenestrata W09
    |    |    |--A. rustica J81
    |    |    `--A. weyrauchi Lindner 1951 W09
    |    |--Euryneura J81
    |    |    |--E. elegans W09
    |    |    |--E. propinqua J81
    |    |    `--E. robusta W09
    |    `--Cyphomyia J81
    |         |--C. androgyna W09
    |         |--C. bicarinata J81
    |         |--C. cyanea W09
    |         |--C. erecta W09
    |         `--C. picta W09
    `--Pachygastrinae J81
         |--Artemita nana J81
         |--Berkshiria albistylum J81
         |--Neopachygaster maculicornis J81
         |--Blastocera speciosa W09
         |--Neochauna variabilis W09
         |--Panacris microdonta W09
         |--Panacridops varians W09
         |--Kerteszmyia ecuadora W09
         |--Pseudocyphomyia mimetica W09
         |--Acanthinomyia elongata W09
         |--Tegocera jamesi Lindner 1964 W09
         |--Ecchaetomyia nigrovittata W09
         |--Chalcidomorphina aurata W09
         |--Brachyodina W09
         |--Ligyromyia columbiana W09
         |--Lyprotemyia formicaeformis W09
         |--Vittiger schnusei W09
         |--Strobilaspis flavitarsis W09
         |--Hypselophrum W09
         |--Trigonocerina W09
         |--Cosmariomyia J81
         |    |--*C. argyrosticta W09
         |    `--C. pallidipennis J81
         |--Borboridea J81
         |    |--B. megaspis W09
         |    `--B. microcephalum W09
         |--Zabrachia J81
         |    |--Z. barbata W09
         |    `--Z. polita J81
         |--Caenacantha W09
         |    |--C. bipartita W09
         |    `--C. obesa W09
         |--Chorophthalmyia W09
         |    |--‘Cosmariomyia’ albarista W09
         |    `--C. brevicornis Lindner 1964 W09
         |--Popanomyia W09
         |    |--*P. femoralis W09
         |    `--P. kertesz W09
         |--Cynipimorpha W09
         |    |--C. bilimeki W09
         |    `--C. opuntiae [=Cactobia opuntiae] W09
         |--Eupachygaster W09
         |    |--E. alexanderi W09
         |    `--E. tarsalis W09
         |--Psephiocera W09
         |    |--P. cognata W09
         |    `--P. villosa [=Lyprotemyia villosa] W09
         |--Dactylodeictes W09
         |    |--D. brevifacies W09
         |    |--D. lopesi W09
         |    `--D. medius W09
         |--Manotes W09
         |    |--*M. plana W09
         |    |--M. crassimanus W09
         |    `--M. latimanus W09
         |--Eidalimus J81
         |    |--*E. annulatus W09
         |    |--E. fuscus W09
         |    |--E. henshawi W09
         |    `--E. lineatus W09
         |--Pachygaster J81
         |    |--*P. atra W09
         |    |--P. flavipennis Hull 1942 W09
         |    |--P. pulcher W09
         |    `--P. wirthi W09
         `--Gowdeyana J81
              |--G. argenteus W09
              |--G. mirabilis W09
              |--G. punctifera J81
              |--G. varipes W09
              `--G. vitrisetosus W09

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BLM02] Blagoderov, V. A., E. D. Lukashevich & M. B. Mostovski. 2002. Order Diptera Linné, 1758. The true flies (=Muscida Laicharting, 1781). In: Rasnitsyn, A. P., & D. L. J. Quicke (eds) History of Insects pp. 227–240. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.

[CM70] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1970. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers pp. 656–740. Melbourne University Press.

[CM74] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1974. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers. Supplement 1974 pp. 91–96. Melbourne University Press.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[C91] CSIRO. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers vol. 1. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[H82] Helmore, D. W. 1982. Drawings of New Zealand insects. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of New Zealand 8: 1–52.

[J81] James, M. T. 1981. Stratiomyidae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 497–511. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] vol. 2. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[K03] Kury, A. B. 2003. Annotated catalogue of the Laniatores of the New World (Arachnida, Opiliones). Revista Ibérica de Aracnología, volumen especial monográfico 1: 1–337.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[W09] Woodley, N. E. 2009. Stratiomyidae (soldier flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 521–549. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[ZS10] Zborowski, P., & R. Storey. 2010. A Field Guide to Insects in Australia 3rd ed. Reed New Holland: Sydney.

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