Styphelieae

Coast beard-heath Cyathodes parviflora, copyright Stephen Bain.


Belongs within: Styphelioideae.

The Styphelieae are a group of ericaceous shrubs with fleshy fruits.

Characters (from Kron et al. 2002): Shrubs. Leaves alternate, entire, with leaf base narrow and one to several longitudinal veins having abaxial fiber cap that contacts abaxial epidermis. Flowers in terminal or reduced axillary racemes; bracts several grading upward in size, or one, mostly small and persistent, sometimes leaflike and caducous; bracteoles 2. Flowers 5-merous. Calyx lobes ciliate, persistent; corolla sympetalous, cylindrical, the lobes straight, spreading or recurved, mostly valvate in bud, occasionally imbricate. Stamens 5, epipetalous; anthers monothecal, with or without appendages. Pollen in monads, sometimes in tetrads or shed as reduced tetrads with one or more cells aborting. Ovary 2–11-locular, each with single ovule, placentation apical, style not impressed. Fruit drupaceous and brightly coloured, sometimes splitting to release endocarp, with sometimes splits into separate pyrenes.

<==Styphelieae [Stenanthereae, Stypheliinae]
    |--Brachyloma daphnoides KJ02
    |--Coleanthera myrtoides KJ02, G04
    |--Conostephium pendulum KJ02, RL05
    |--Croninia KJ02
    |--Cyathopsis KJ02
    |--Decatoca KJ02
    |--Leptecophylla KJ02
    |--Lissanthe strigosa KJ02
    |--Planocarpa KJ02
    |--Trochocarpa thymifolia KJ02
    |--Pentachondra Br. 1810 KJ02, A61
    |    `--P. pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |--Melichrus KJ02
    |    |--M. rotatus C08
    |    `--M. urceolatus C08
    |--Acrotriche KJ02
    |    |--A. aggregata KJ02
    |    |--A. hamptonii GMD11
    |    `--A. patula G04
    |--Monotoca KJ02
    |    |--M. elliptica MM09
    |    |--M. glauca KJ02
    |    |--M. leucantha G04
    |    |--M. oreophila B00
    |    `--M. scoparia KJ02
    |--Astroloma KJ02
    |    |--A. baxteri GK00
    |    |--A. cataphractum OS04
    |    |--A. ciliatum RL05
    |    |--A. microcalyx GK00
    |    |--A. pallidum GK00
    |    |--A. prostratum GK00
    |    |--A. serratifolium OS04
    |    `--A. styphelioides MM09
    |--Styphelia KJ02
    |    |--S. abnormis J03
    |    |--S. esquamata M87
    |    |--S. laeta C08
    |    |--S. longiflora H87a
    |    |--S. nesophila H03
    |    |--S. pulchella G04
    |    |--S. suaveolens P88
    |    |--S. tameiameiae MK08
    |    |--S. tenuiflora GK00
    |    |--S. tubiflora KJ02
    |    `--S. viridis C08
    |--Cyathodes Labill. 1804 KJ02, A61
    |    |--C. colensoi Hooker 1864 [=Leucopogon colensoi Hooker 1854] A61
    |    |--C. dealbata W91
    |    |--C. empetrifolia Hooker 1854 [=Androstoma empetrifolia Hooker 1844] A61
    |    |--C. fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. fraseri (Cunn.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--C. f. var. fraseri A61
    |    |    `--C. f. var. muscosa (Simpson) Allan 1961 [=Leucopogon fraseri var. muscosus Simpson 1945] A61
    |    |--C. juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |    |--C. j. var. juniperina A61
    |    |    `--C. j. var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 (see below for synonymy) A61
    |    |--C. parviflora (Andr.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia parviflora Andr. 1803, Leucopogon parviflorus Lindl. 1833] A61
    |    |--C. pumila Hooker 1867 A61
    |    `--C. robusta Hooker 1864 [incl. C. acerosa var. latifolia Hooker 1854] A61
    `--Leucopogon KJ02
         |--L. amplexicaulis H87b
         |--L. attenuatus NC91
         |--L. australis GK00
         |--L. biflorus H87b
         |--L. capitellatus RL05
         |--L. cinereus LK00
         |--L. collinus C08
         |--L. conostephioides RL05
         |--L. cuneifolius G04
         |--L. cymbiformis OS04
         |--L. dielsianus OS04
         |--L. elatior GK00
         |--L. ericoides H87a
         |--L. esquamatus H87b
         |--L. fimbriatus OS04
         |--L. florulentus OS04
         |--L. gibbosus GK00
         |--L. glabellus GK00
         |--L. gracillimus LK00
         |--L. hamulosus S95
         |--L. juniperinus WO88
         |--L. lanceolatus C08
         |--L. lasiophyllus GK00
         |--L. margarodes M65
         |--L. marginatus G04
         |--L. melaleucoides C08
         |--L. microphyllus C08
         |    |--L. m. var. microphyllus C08
         |    `--L. m. var. pilibundus C08
         |--L. muticus KJ02
         |--L. neo-anglicus C08
         |--L. oxycedrus GK00
         |--L. pendulus GK00
         |--L. pogonocalyx OS04
         |--L. polymorphus GK00
         |--L. propinquus GK00
         |--L. pulchellus RL05
         |--L. richei Br. 1810 ME70, A61 [=Styphelia richei Labill. 1804 A61]
         |--L. sprengelioides GK00
         |--L. sulcatus G04
         |--L. tamariscinus GK00
         |--L. unilateralis GK00
         |--L. verticillatus RL05
         `--L. virgatus N91

Cyathodes fasciculata (Forster) Allan 1961 [=Epacris fasciculata Forster 1786, Leucopogon fasciculatus Rich. 1832; incl. L. brevibarbis Stchegl. 1859, L. heterophyllus Colenso 1898] A61

Cyathodes fraseri (Cunn.) Allan 1961 [=Leucopogon faseri Cunn. 1839, Styphelia fraseri Muell. 1867; incl. L. bellignianus Raoul 1844, L. nesophilus DC. 1839] A61

Cyathodes juniperina (Forster & Forster) Druce 1917 [=Epacris juniperina Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Ardisia acerosa Gaertn. 1791, Cyathodes acerosa (Gaertn.) Br. 1810, C. articulata Col. 1896, Leucopogon forsteri Rich. 1832] A61

Cyathodes juniperina var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Allan 1961 [=Styphelia oxycedrus Labill. 1804, C. acerosa var. oxycedrus (Labill.) Cheesem. 1906, C. oxycedrus Br. 1810] A61

Pentachondra pumila (Forster & Forster) Br. 1810 [=Epacris pumila Forster & Forster 1776; incl. Trochocarpa novae-zelandiae Col. 1896, Pernettya polyphylla Col. 1899, Pentachondra rubra Col. 1896] A61

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A61] Allan, H. H. 1961. Flora of New Zealand vol. 1. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledones. R. E. Owen, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[B00] Braby, M. F. 2000. Butterflies of Australia: their identification, biology and distribution vol. 2. CSIRO Publishing: Collingwood (Victoria).

[C08] Cambage, R. H. 1908. Notes on the native flora of New South Wales. Part VI. Deepwater to Torrington and Emmaville. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 33 (1): 45–65, pls 1–2.

[GMD11] George, A. S., N. L. McKenzie & P. Doughty. 2011. A Biodiversity Survey of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia 2002–2007. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 78 (1).

[G04] Gibson, N. 2004. Flora and vegetation of the Eastern Goldfields Ranges: part 7. Middle and South Ironcap, Digger Rock and Hatter Hill. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (2): 49–62.

[GK00] Gibson, N., & G. J. Keighery. 2000. Flora and vegetation of the Byenup-Muir reserve system, south-west Western Australia. CALMScience 3 (3): 323–402.

[H87a] Haviland, E. 1887a. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. I—List of plants indigenous in the neighbourhood of Sydney, flowering during July. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1049–1051.

[H87b] Haviland, E. 1887b. Flowering seasons of Australian plants. No. II. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1103–1104.

[H03] Heads, M. 2003. Ericaceae in Malesia: vicariance biogeography, terrane tectonics and ecology. Telopea 10 (1): 311–449.

[KJ02] Kron, K. A., W. S. Judd, P. F. Stevens, D. M. Crayn, A. A. Anderberg, P. A. Gadek, C. J. Quinn & J. L. Luteyn. 2002. Phylogenetic classification of Ericaceae: molecular and morphological evidence. Botanical Review 68: 335–423.

[LK00] Lowrie, A., & K. F. Kenneally. 2000. Three new species of Stylidium (Stylidiaceae) from south-west Western Australia. Nuytsia 13: 293–302.

[M65] Michener, C. D. 1965. A classification of the bees of the Australian and South Pacific regions. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 130: 1–362.

[MK08] Mockford, E. L., & P. D. Krushelnycky. 2008. New species and records of Liposcelis Motschulsky (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) from Hawaii with first description of the male of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel. Zootaxa 1766: 53–68.

[ME70] Moore, L. B., & E. Edgar. 1970. Flora of New Zealand vol. 2. Indigenous Tracheophyta: Monocotyledones except Gramineae. A. R. Shearer, Government Printer: Wellington (New Zealand).

[MM09] Mound, L. A., & M. Masumoto. 2009. Australian Thripinae of the Anaphothrips genus-group (Thysanoptera), with three new genera and thirty-three new species. Zootaxa 2042: 1–76.

[M87] Mueller, F. von. 1887. Some hitherto undescribed plants of New South Wales. Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (4): 1105–1110.

[NC91] Nielsen, E. S., & I. F. B. Common. 1991. Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 817–915. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[N91] Norris, K. R. 1991. General biology. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 1 pp. 68–108. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[OS04] Obbens, F. J., & L. W. Sage. 2004. Vegetation and flora of a diverse upland remnant of the Western Australian wheatbelt (Nature Reserve A21064). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 87 (1): 19–28.

[P88] Polunin, I. 1988. Plants and Flowers of Malaysia. Times Editions: Singapore.

[RL05] Rafferty, C., & B. B. Lamont. 2005. Selective feeding by macropods on vegetation regenerating following fire. Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88 (4): 155–165.

[S95] Smith, G. T. 1995. Species richness, habitat and conservation of scorpions in the Western Australian wheatbelt. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 52: 55–66.

[WO88] Wakabayashi, M., & H. Ohba. 1988. Cytotaxonomic study of the Himalayan Saxifraga. In: Ohba, H., & S. B. Malla (eds) The Himalayan Plants vol. 1. The University Museum, University of Tokyo, Bulletin 31: 71–90.

[W91] Williams, P. A. 1991. Subalpine and alpine vegetation of granite ranges in western Nelson, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 29: 317–330.

Oecanthinae

Prognathogryllus in stem of tree fern Cibotium menziesii, copyright Forest & Kim Starr.


Belongs within: Grylloidea.

The Oecanthinae, tree crickets, are a group of crickets easily distinguished from other grylloides by their deltoid appearance, pale coloration, prognathous mouthparts and bifurcate tarsal claws (Rentz 1996).

<==Oecanthinae R96
    |  i. s.: Paraphasius O94
    |         Lerneca varipes Walker 1869 R18
    |--Oecanthini O94
    |    |--Viphius O94
    |    |--Oecanthodes O94
    |    `--Oecanthus R96
    |         |--O. adyeri MC13
    |         |--O. angustus R96
    |         |--O. filiger O94
    |         |--O. fultoni O94
    |         `--O. rufescens R96
    `--Xabini O94
         |--Xabea leai O94, R96
         |--Neoxabea Kirby 1906 O94
         `--+--+--Thaumatogryllus Perkins 1899 O94
            |  |    |--*T. variegatus Perkins 1899 O94
            |  |    |--T. cavicola Gurney & Rentz 1978 O94
            |  |    |--T. conanti Otte 1994 O94
            |  |    `--T. mauiensis Otte 1994 O94
            |  `--Leptogryllus Perkins 1899 O94
            |       |  i. s.: L. apicalis Perkisn 1910 O94
            |       |         L. deceptor Perkins 1910 O94
            |       |         L. kipahulu Otte 1994 O94
            |       |         L. perkisni Otte 1994 O94
            |       |--+--+--L. poamoho Otte 1994 O94
            |       |  |  `--+--L. nigromaculatus Perkins 1899 O94
            |       |  |     `--L. haupu Otte 1994 O94
            |       |  `--+--+--L. mauumae Otte 1994 O94
            |       |     |  `--L. nigrolineatus Perkins 1899 [incl. L. cylindricus Perkins 1910 non Perkins 1899] O94
            |       |     `--+--L. kainalu Otte 1994 O94
            |       |        `--+--L. luteus Otte 1994 O94
            |       |           `--L. ookala Otte 1994 O94
            |       `--+--+--L. kauaiensis Perkins 1899 [incl. L. cylindricus Perkins 1899] O94
            |          |  `--+--L. kaala Otte 1994 O94
            |          |     `--L. oahuensis Otte 1994 O94
            |          `--+--+--+--L. elongatus Perkins 1899 O94
            |             |  |  `--L. kohala Otte 1994 O94
            |             |  `--+--L. mauiensis Otte 1994 O94
            |             |     `--L. waikemoi Otte 1994 O94
            |             `--+--L. fusconotatus Perkins 1899 O94
            |                |--L. lanaiensis Otte 1994 O94
            |                |--+--*L. forficularis (Brunner 1895) [=Prognathogryllus forficularis] O94
            |                |  `--L. similis Perkins 1899 O94
            |                |--+--L. kawela Otte 1994 O94
            |                |  `--L. molokai Otte 1994 O94
            |                `--+--L. hanaula Otte 1994 O94
            |                   |--L. montgomeri Otte 1994 O94
            |                   `--L. simillimus Perkins 1899 O94
            `--Prognathogryllus Brunner von Wattenwyl 1895 (see below for synonymy) O94
                 |  i. s.: P. apteryx (Perkins 1899) (n. d.) [=*Aphonogryllus apteryx] O94
                 |--+--P. epimeces Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--P. haupu Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--P. kahili Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--P. parakahili Otte 1994 O94
                 |  `--+--P. elongatus Perkins 1899 O94
                 |     `--P. hypomacron Otte 1994 O94
                 |--+--*P. alatus Brunner von Wattenwyl 1895 O94
                 |  |--P. giganteus Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--P. pihea Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--P. victoriae Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |--+--P. flavidus Otte 1994 O94
                 |  |  `--P. hea Otte 1994 O94
                 |  `--+--P. pararobustus Otte 1994 O94
                 |     `--P. robustus Perkins 1899 O94
                 `--+--+--+--P. awili Otte 1994 O94
                    |  |  `--P. kahea Otte 1994 O94
                    |  `--+--P. alapa Otte 1994 O94
                    |     |--P. alternatus Otte 1994 O94
                    |     |--+--P. makai Otte 1994 O94
                    |     |  `--P. weli Otte 1994 O94
                    |     `--+--P. olympus Otte 1994 O94
                    |        `--P. opua Otte 1994 O94
                    `--+--P. aphrastos Otte 1994 O94
                       |--P. makakapua Otte 1994 O94
                       |--+--P. oahuensis Perkins 1899 O94
                       |  `--+--P. spadix Otte 1994 O94
                       |     `--P. stridulans (Perkins 1899) [=*Nesogryllus stridulans] O94
                       `--+--+--P. kukui Otte 1994 O94
                          |  `--P. parakukui Otte 1994 [=P. neokukui (l. c.)] O94
                          |--+--P. hana Otte 1994 O94
                          |  |--P. kipahulu Otte 1994 O94
                          |  `--P. waikemoi Otte 1994 O94
                          `--+--P. kohala Otte 1994 O94
                             `--+--P. mauka Otte 1994 O94
                                `--P. puna Otte 1994 O94

Nomen nudum: Leptogryllus kilauea Otte 1994 O94
             Prognathogryllus polani Otte 1994 O94
             Prognathogryllus unia Otte 1994
             Prognathogryllus wahiawa Otte 1994 O94

Prognathogryllus Brunner von Wattenwyl 1895 [incl. Aphonogryllus Perkins 1899, Nesogryllus Perkins 1899] O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R18] Rehn, J. A. G. 1918. On a collection of Orthoptera from the State of Pará, Brazil. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 70: 144–236, pls 1–2.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney.

Trigonidium

Unidentified Trigonidium, copyright Muhammad Mahdi Karim.


Belongs within: Grylloidea.

Trigonidium is a widespread genus of sword-tailed crickets in Asia and the Pacific, with the highest diversity currently recognised from the Hawaiian Islands.

Characters (from Otte 1994): Body colour often spotted or variegated, often with dark spots and markings on head, pronotum, forewings and abdomen; basal body colour usually pale brown, sometimes reddish or greenish, rarely blackish; fore and mid-legs usually banded, rarely unbanded, sometimes blackish; male genitalia wide with long narrow prongs; songs usually consisting of rapid trills, rarely slower.

<==Trigonidium R96
    |  i. s.: *T. cicindeloides Rambur 1838 O94
    |         T. australis MC13
    |         T. canberrae R96
    |         T. meekappa MC13
    |--+--T. sylvaticum Otte 1994 [=T. sylvatica (l. c.)] O94
    |  |--+--T. akaka Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |--T. hamakua Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  `--T. kalopa Otte 1994 O94
    |  |--+--+--T. holomua Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  `--T. makani Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  `--+--T. aka Otte 1994 O94
    |  |     |--T. halulu Otte 1994 O94
    |  |     `--T. kulana Otte 1994 O94
    |  |--+--+--T. kapipi Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  `--T. malanai Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |--+--T. excultatum Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  |--T. improbum Otte 1994 [=T. improba (l. c.)] O94
    |  |  |  `--T. incongruum Otte 1994 [=T. incongrua (l. c.)] O94
    |  |  `--+--T. exuberans Otte 1994 O94
    |  |     |--T. roseum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium roseum, T. rosea (l. c.)] O94
    |  |     `--T. wahoi Otte 1994 O94
    |  |--+--T. kau Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |--+--T. hoku Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  `--T. neovarians Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |--+--T. hyperkona Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  |--T. kahua Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  |  `--T. makapala Otte 1994 O94
    |  |  `--+--T. kohala Otte 1994 O94
    |  |     |--T. nani Otte 1994 O94
    |  |     `--T. pavidum Otte 1994 O94
    |  `--+--+--T. ookala Otte 1994 O94
    |     |  `--T. pololu Otte 1994 O94
    |     |--+--T. awiwi Otte 1994 O94
    |     |  |--T. kolekole Otte 1994 O94
    |     |  `--T. ola Otte 1994 O94
    |     `--+--T. filicum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium filicum] O94
    |        |--T. fritinnium Otte 1994 O94
    |        |--T. grande (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium grande] O94
    |        |--T. kona Otte 1994 O94
    |        |--T. mahina Otte 1994 O94
    |        |--T. mauka Otte 1994 O94
    |        |--T. neogrande Otte 1994 O94
    |        |--T. varians (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium varians] O94
    |        |--T. viridiscens (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium viridescens] O94
    |        `--T. waimea Otte 1994 O94
    `--+--+--T. octonalis Otte 1994 O94
       |  |--+--T. flectens Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  `--T. robustum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium robustum, T. robusta (l. c.)] O94
       |  |--+--T. septimum Otte 1994 [=T. septima (l. c.)] O94
       |  |  `--T. sextum Otte 1994 [=T. sexta (l. c.)] O94
       |  |--+--T. acuste Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  |--T. crepitans (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium crepitans] O94
       |  |  `--T. pahiwa Otte 1994 O94
       |  |--+--T. hopo Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  |--T. novagintum Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  `--T. olomea Otte 1994 O94
       |  |--+--T. huapala Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  |--T. makau Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  `--T. malela Otte 1994 O94
       |  |--+--T. anoe Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  |--T. haupu Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  |--T. pseudonoe Otte 1994 O94
       |  |  `--T. triens Otte 1994 O94
       |  |--+--T. attenuatum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium attenuatum, T. attenuata (l. c.)] O94
       |  |  |--T. crustum Otte 1994 [=T. crusta (l. c.)] O94
       |  |  |--T. octavum Otte 1994 [=T. octava (l. c.)] O94
       |  |  `--T. procrustum Otte 1994 [=T. procrusta (l. c.)] O94
       |  `--+--T. novena Otte 1994 O94
       |     |--T. paranoe Otte 1994 O94
       |     |--T. paroctonalis Otte 1994 O94
       |     `--T. virens Otte 1994 O94
       `--+--+--T. atroferrugineum (Brunner 1895) [=Paratrigonidium atroferrugineum] O94
          |  |--T. puiwa Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. awawa Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  |--T. ua Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. wai Otte 1994 O94
          |  `--+--T. kupono Otte 1994 O94
          |     |--T. molokaiense (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium molokaiense] O94
          |     `--T. pipili Otte 1994 O94
          |--+--+--T. ilex Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. pudicum Otte 1994 [=T. pudica (l. c.)] O94
          |  |--+--T. kaeka Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. wiki Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. ahiu Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  |--T. imitans Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. nele Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. freycinetiae (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium freycinetiae] O94
          |  |  |--T. hapapa Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. saltator (Perkins 1994) [=Paratrigonidium saltator] O94
          |  `--+--T. iuka Otte 1994 O94
          |     |--T. lena Otte 1994 O94
          |     `--T. paranoho Otte 1994 O94
          |--+--+--T. exiguum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium exiguum] O94
          |  |  `--T. haawina Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. hehelo Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. liula Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. ignavum Otte 1994 [=T. ignava (l. c.)] O94
          |  |  `--T. languidum Otte 1994 [=T. languida (l. c.)] O94
          |  |--+--T. subroseum (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium subroseum] O94
          |  |  `--T. venatum Otte 1994 [=T. venata (l. c.)] O94
          |  |--+--T. fortuitum Otte 1994 [=T. fortuita (l. c.)] O94
          |  |  |--T. paraspilos Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. pseudoli Otte 1994 O94
          |  |--+--T. laupele Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  |--T. makanina Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  |--T. puukani Otte 1994 O94
          |  |  `--T. sibilans Otte 1994 O94
          |  `--+--T. debile (Perkins 1899) [=Paratrigonidium debile] O94
          |     |--T. ligna Otte 1994 O94
          |     |--T. ohaka Otte 1994 O94
          |     |--T. palai Otte 1994 O94
          |     `--T. spilos Otte 1994 O94
          `--+--T. waikua Otte 1994 O94
             |--+--T. eumeles Otte 1994 O94
             |  `--T. ulaino Otte 1994 O94
             |--+--T. hoahoa Otte 1994 O94
             |  |--T. proalina Otte 1994 O94
             |  `--T. waialina Otte 1994 O94
             |--+--T. hamumu Otte 1994 O94
             |  |--T. kupinai Otte 1994 O94
             |  |--T. paramana Otte 1994 O94
             |  `--T. silvicola Otte 1994 O94
             |--+--T. iao Otte 1994 [=T. rufa Otte 1994 (n. n.)] O94
             |  |--T. kukui Otte 1994 O94
             |  |--T. mauiensis Otte 1994 O94
             |  |--T. neokukui Otte 1994 O94
             |  `--T. promana Otte 1994 O94
             `--+--T. alina Otte 1994
                |--T. kewai Otte 1994 O94
                |--T. kolea Otte 1994 O94
                |--T. kua Otte 1994 O94
                |--T. mana Otte 1994 O94
                |--T. pseudokua Otte 1994 O94
                `--T. waipuna Otte 1994 O94

Nomina nuda: Trigonidium halulu Otte 1994 O94
             Trigonidium infrequens Otte 1994 O94
             Trigonidium kokio Otte 1994 O94
             Trigonidium koolignava Otte 1994 O94
             Trigonidium kuikawa Otte 1994 O94
             Trigonidium welau Otte 1994 O94

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists' Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[R96] Rentz, D. 1996. Grasshopper Country: The abundant orthopteroid insects of Australia. University of New South Wales Press: Sydney

Chrysidoidea

Female Gonatopus, copyright Vida van der Walt.


Belongs within: Aculeata.
Contains: Chrysididae.

The Chrysidoidea are a group of sting-bearing, mostly small wasps with parasitoid or cleptoparasitic larvae.

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Femora inflated; first metasomal tergum narrowed and fused with sternum; Cu2 reduced.

<==Chrysidoidea [Bethyloidea, Cleptiosa]
    |  i. s.: Sparasion Latreille 1802 L02
    |           `--*S. cephalotes L02
    |--Plumarius BM76 [Plumariidae GE05]
    `--+--Scolebythidae GE05
       |    |--Ycaploca evansi GE05
       |    |--Pristapenesia [incl. Dominibythus] GE05
       |    `--Clystopsenella GE05
       `--+--+--Chrysididae GE05
          |  `--Bethylidae GE05
          |       |--Mesitiinae N91
          |       |--Pristocerinae N91
          |       |    |--Apenesia MC13
          |       |    |--Pseudisobrachium N91
          |       |    `--Dissomphalus N91
          |       |--Bethylinae N91
          |       |    |--Sierola N91
          |       |    |--Eupsenella N91
          |       |    |--Bethylus Latreille 1802 L02
          |       |    |    `--*B. hemipterus [=Tiphia hemiptera] L02
          |       |    `--Goniozus N91
          |       |         |--G. claripennis MS01
          |       |         |--G. emigratus NS91
          |       |         `--G. legneri NS91
          |       `--Epyrinae N91
          |            |--Cephalonomiini N91
          |            |    |--Cephalonomia tarsalis Z93
          |            |    |--Plastanoxus N91
          |            |    |--Sclerodermus N91
          |            |    `--Lepidosternopsis N91
          |            `--Epyrini N91
          |                 |--Rhabdepyris N91
          |                 |--Holepyris N91
          |                 `--Epyris K62
          |                      |--E. brachypterus K62
          |                      |--E. pulchellus Lucas 1849 E12
          |                      `--E. vierecki Krombein 1962 K62
          `--+--Sclerogibbidae GE05
             |    |--Probethylus schwarzi R00
             |    `--Sclerogibba N91
             `--+--Embolemus N91 [Embolemidae GE05]
                `--Dryinidae GE05
                     |  i. s.: Dicondylus bicolor K91
                     |--Transdryininae N91
                     |--Thaumatodryinus [Thaumatodryininae] N91
                     |--Bocchus [Bocchinae] N91
                     |--Biaphelopinae N91
                     |--Conganteoninae N91
                     |--Apodryininae N91
                     |--Anteon [Anteoninae] N91
                     |    `--A. flavicorne A71
                     |--Aphelopus [Aphelopinae] GE05
                     |    |--A. melaleucus MS01
                     |    `--A. theliae A71
                     |--Mesodryinus [Dryininae] N91
                     |    |--M. alatus K62
                     |    |--M. americanus K62
                     |    `--M. crawfordi Krombein 1962 K62
                     `--Gonatopodinae N91
                          |--Echthrodelphax N91
                          |--Neodryinus N91
                          |    |--N. koebelei Perkins 1905 GM79
                          |    `--N. semipolita Girault 1925 G25
                          `--Gonatopus K62
                               |--G. ashmeadi K62
                               |--G. curriei Krombein 1962 K62
                               `--G. sepsoides K91

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[A71] Askew, R. R. 1971. Parasitic Insects. Heinemann Educational Books: London.

[BM76] Bohart, R. M., & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l'Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[G25] Girault, A. A. 1925. Some gem-like or marvellous inhabitants of the woodlands heretofore unknown and by most never seen or dreamt of. Privately published (reprinted Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 191–193).

[GM79] Gordh, G., A. S. Menke, E. C. Dahms & J. C. Hall. 1979. The privately printed papers of A. A. Girault. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 28: 1–400.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K91] Kathirithamby, J. 1991. Strepsiptera. In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 684–695. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[K62] Krombein, K. V. 1962. Natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. XIII. Descriptions of new wasps from Plummers Island, Maryland, (Hymenoptera: Aculeata). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 75: 1–18.

[L02] Latreille, P. A. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes vol. 3. Familles naturelles des genres. F. Dufart: Paris.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MS01] Mocsáry, A., & V. Szépligeti. 1901. Hymenopterák [Hymenopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 121–169. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[NS91] Nagelkerke, C. J., & M. W. Sabelis. 1991. Precise sex-ratio control in the pseudo-arrhenotokous phytoseiid mite Typhlodromus occidentalis Nesbitt. In: Schuster, R., & P. W. Murphy (eds) The Acari: Reproduction, development and life-history strategies pp. 193–207. Chapman & Hall: London.

[N91] Naumann, I. D. 1991. Hymenoptera (wasps, bees, ants, sawflies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 916–1000. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[R00] Ross, E. S. 2000. Embia. Contributions to the biosystematics of the insect order Embiidina. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 149: 1–53, 1–36.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

Empidoidea

Protempis antennata, from Grimaldi & Engel (2005).


Belongs within: Brachycera.
Contains: Dolichopodidae, Empididae, Hybotidae.

The Empidoidea are a clade of long-legged flies supported by molecular data. Members of this clade are predators as adults and larvae (Grimaldi & Engel 2005).

<==Empidoidea
    |  i. s.: Afroclinocera GE05
    |         Homalocnemus GE05
    |         Dianafranksia WT11
    |         Brachystomatidae [Brachystomatinae, Trichopezinae] CS09
    |           |--Brachystoma occidentale SK81
    |           |--Anomalempis SK81
    |           |--Heleodromia pullata CS09, SK81
    |           `--Apalocnemis canadambris CS09, GE05
    |--Protoreogeton admirabilis GE05
    |--Homalocnemimus abjugatus GE05
    |--Protempis [Protempidinae] GE05
    |    |--P. antennata GE05
    |    `--P. minuta GE05
    `--+--+--Dolichopodidae WT11
       |  `--+--Empididae WT11
       |     `--Hybotidae WT11
       `--Atelestidae [Atelestinae] GE05
            |--Dianafranskia fisheri GE05
            |--Atelestites senectus GE05
            |--Meghyperus CS09
            `--Atelestus WT11 [incl. Platycnema K87]
                 `--A. pulicarius WT11

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[CS09] Cumming, J. M., & B. J. Sinclair. 2009. Empididae (dance flies, balloon flies, predaceous flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 1 pp. 653–670. Ottawa, NRC Research Press.

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[K87] Kessel, E. L. 1987. Platypezidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 681–688. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[SK81] Steyskal, G. C., & L. V. Knutson. 1981. Empididae. In: McAlpine, J. F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth & D. S. Wood (eds) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 1 pp. 607–624. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Calyptratae

Lesser house fly Fannia canicularis, copyright Rui Andrade.


Belongs within: Schizophora.
Contains: Glossina, Hippoboscidae, Muscidae, Anthomyiidae, Oestroidea.

The Calyptratae include houseflies, blowflies and related taxa. The clade is named for the enlarged lower calypter on the wing, and members of the calyptrates are mostly very acrobatic fliers; however, some sublineages do lack a large calypter, and a more reliable synapomorphy of the group may be the presence of labellar pseudotracheae forming distinctive prestomal teeth on the proboscis (Kutty et al. 2010). A number of calyptrate families are parasitic either as adults or larvae; the members of one of the main clades of calyptrates, the Hippoboscoidea, are all ectoparasites and/or blood-feeders on vertebrates. The remaining calyptrates have generally been divided between the superfamilies Muscoidea and Oestroidea, but molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that the former forms a paraphyletic grade to the latter (Kutty et al. 2010).

Synapomorphies (from Grimaldi & Engel 2005): Large, flaplike lower calypter present at base of wing; prestomal teeth present on labellum.

<==Calyptratae [Calypterae, Pupipara, Schizometopa]
    |--Hippoboscoidea KP10
    |    |--Glossina KP10
    |    `--Hippoboscidae KP10
    `--Muscoidea KP10
         |  i. s.: Setulia grisea BM76
         |         Mormotomyia GE05 [Mormotomyiidae CM91]
         |           `--M. hirsuta GE05
         |--+--Muscidae WT11
         |  `--+--Anthomyiidae WT11
         |     `--Oestroidea WT11
         `--Fanniidae [Fanniinae] WT11
              |--Australofannia C94
              |--Euryomma peregrinum S10
              |--Piezura [incl. Platycoenosia] S10
              `--Fannia [incl. Coelomyia, Homalomyia] S10
                   |  i. s.: F. albitarsis CM91
                   |         F. anthracina S10
                   |         F. benjamini S10
                   |         F. incisurata S10
                   |         F. scalaris S10
                   |         ‘Homalomyia’ serena K01
                   |         F. subpellucens HV87
                   |--F. manicata KP10
                   `--+--F. armata KP10
                      `--F. canicularis KP10

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[BM76] Bohart, R. M. & A. S. Menke. 1976. Sphecid Wasps of the World. University of California Press: Berkeley.

[C94] Colless, D. H. 1994. A new family of muscoid Diptera from Australasia, with sixteen new species in four new genera (Diptera: Axiniidae). Invertebrate Taxonomy 8: 471–534.

[CM91] Colless, D. H., & D. K. McAlpine. 1991. Diptera (flies). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 717–786. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[GE05] Grimaldi, D., & M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press: New York.

[HV87] Huckett, H. C., & J. R. Vockeroth. 1987. Muscidae. In: McAlpine, J. F. (ed.) Manual of Nearctic Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1115–1131. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada.

[K01] Kertész, K. 1901. Legyek [Dipteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 179–201. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[KP10] Kutty, S. N., T. Pape, B. M. Wiegmann & R. Meier. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Calyptratae (Diptera: Cyclorrhapha) with an emphasis on the superfamily Oestroidea and the position of Mystacinobiidae and McAlpine's fly. Systematic Entomology 35: 614–635.

[S10] Savage, J. 2010. Fanniidae (fanniid flies, latrine flies). In: Brown, B. V., A. Borkent, J. M. Cumming, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley & M. A. Zumbado (eds) Manual of Central American Diptera vol. 2 pp. 1277–1280. NRC Research Press: Ottawa.

[WT11] Wiegmann, B. M., M. D. Trautwein, I. S. Winkler, N. B. Barr, J.-W. Kim, C. Lambkin, M. A. Bertone, B. K. Cassel, K. M. Bayless, A. M. Heimberg, B. M. Wheeler, K. J. Peterson, T. Pape, B. J. Sinclair, J. H. Skevington, V. Blagoderov, J. Caravas, S. N. Kutty, U. Schmidt-Ott, G. E. Kampmeier, F. C. Thompson, D. A. Grimaldi, A. T. Beckenbach, G. W. Courtney, M. Friedrich, R. Meier & D. K. Yeates. 2011. Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 108 (14): 5690–5695.

Histeridae

Saprinus aeneus, copyright K. V. Makarov.


Belongs within: Staphyliniformia.
Contains: Chlamydopsis.

The Histeridae are a group of carnivorous beetles with a generally compact body form, deeply inserted head and compactly clubbed antennae (Lawrence & Britton 1991).

Characters (from Lawrence & Britton 1991): Adult with compact body form, length 1–16 mm; head deeply inserted; antenna 8–11-segmented, almost always geniculate, with compact, pilose, one- or three-segmented club; fore coxae large, transverse, fore trochantin concealed, fore coxal cavity open; fore tibiae dentate; elytra with six or fewer striae, truncate, exposing one or two abdominal segments; middle coxal cavities very widely separated, open laterally; tarsal formula 5-5-5 or 5-5-4; abdomen with five ventrites, none connate. Larva with head prognathous; one or no stemmata; antenna three-segmented; frontoclypeal suture absent; labrum fused; mandibular mola absent; ventral mouth-parts prognathous; penicillus of hairs present at base of each mandible; maxilla without lobes; maxillary palp four- or five-segmented; labial palp two- or three-segmented; hypopharyngeal sclerome absent; hypostomal rods absent; ventral epicranial ridges absent; legs five-segmented; two or no tarsungular setae; urogomphi almost always two-segmented; abdominal spiracles biforous.

Histeridae
    |--Niponius [Niponiinae] B14
    |    `--N. osoriceps Lewis 1885 B14
    |--Trypeticus [Trypeticinae, Trypeticini] B14
    |    `--T. cinctipygus (Marseul 1864) B14
    |--Trypanaeus [Trypanaeinae] B14
    |    `--T. bipustulatus (Fabricius 1801) B14
    |--Onthophilus [Onthophilinae] B14
    |    `--O. punctatus (Müller 1776) B14
    |--Haeterius [Haeteriini] B14
    |    `--H. tristriatus Horn 1874 B14
    |--Chlamydopsinae B14
    |    |--Eucurtia comata (Blackburn 1901) B14
    |    |--Pheidoliphila magna Dégallier & Caterino 2005 B14
    |    `--Chlamydopsis L19
    |--Paromalini [Dendrophilinae] B14
    |    |--Platylomalus aequalis (Say 1825) B14
    |    |--Xestipyge B14
    |    |--Carcinops B14
    |    `--Paromalus B14
    |--Abraeinae B14
    |    |  i. s.: Abraeus globulus C01
    |    `--Teretriini B14
    |         |--Pleuroleptus B14
    |         |--Teretriosoma B14
    |         |--Xyphonotus B14
    |         `--Teretrius B14
    |              |--T. nigrescens B14
    |              |--T. (Teretrius) poneli Gomy 2005 F05
    |              `--T. pulex (Fairmaire 1877) B14
    |--Saprinus [Saprininae, Saprinini] B14
    |    |--S. aeneus C01
    |    |--S. chalcites [=Hister chalcites] G89
    |    |--S. concinnus C01
    |    |--S. conjungens C01
    |    |--S. cyaneus (Fabricius 1775) B14
    |    |--S. dimidiatus C01
    |    |--S. externus C01
    |    |--S. immundus C01
    |    |--S. mauritanicus Lucas 1847 E12
    |    |--S. metallicus C01
    |    |--S. moyses Mars 1862 G89
    |    |--S. punctatissimus Erichs. 1824 G89
    |    |--S. semistriatus [incl. S. nitidulus, S. semipunctatus] C01
    |    |--S. speculifer [=Hister speculifer] G89
    |    `--S. virescens C01
    `--Histerinae B14
         |  i. s.: Pachylister inaequalis (Olivier 1789) B14
         |--Hololeptini B14
         |    |--Oxysternus maximus (Linnaeus 1767) B14
         |    `--Hololepta B14
         |         |--H. batchiana Mars 1860 M86
         |         |--H. plana (Sulzer 1776) B14
         |         `--H. sidnensis Mars 1860 M86
         `--Hister Linnaeus 1758 L58 [Histerini LB91]
              |--H. bimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. bissexstriatus C01
              |--H. cadaverinus C01
              |--H. czikanni Csiki 1901 C01
              |--H. fimetarius C01
              |--H. funestus C01
              |--H. purpurascens C01
              |--H. pygmaeus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. quadrimaculatus Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. quadrinotatus Scriba 1790 B14
              |--H. unicolor Linnaeus 1758 L58
              |--H. ventralis C01
              `--H. walkeri LB91

Histeridae incertae sedis:
  Aeletes O94
  Phelister S89
    |--P. balzanii Schmidt 1889 S89
    `--P. fulvulus S89
  Halacritus MC13
  Epiechinus LB91
  Platysoma algiricum Lucas 1847 LB91, E12
  Hypocaccus LB91
  Euspilotus MW15
  Bacanius MW15
  Plaesius javanus Z93

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[B14] Bouchard, P. (ed.) 2014. The Book of Beetles: A lifesize guide to six hundred of nature's gems. Ivy Press: Lewes (United Kingdom).

[C01] Csiki, E. 1901. Bogarak [Coleopteren]. In: Horváth, G. (ed.) Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazása [Dritte Asiatische Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] Band II. Zichy Jenő Gróf Harmadik Ázsiai Utazásának Állattani Eredményei [Zoologische Ergebnisse der Dritten Asiatischen Forschungsreise des Grafen Eugen Zichy] pp. 75–120. Victor Hornyánszky: Budapest, and Karl W. Hierseman: Leipzig.

[E12] Evenhuis, N. L. 2012. Publication and dating of the Exploration Scientifique de l’Algérie: Histoire Naturelle des Animaux Articulés (1846–1849) by Pierre Hippolyte Lucas. Zootaxa 3448: 1–61.

[F05] Fernández, J. 2005. Noticia de nuevos táxones para la ciencia en el ámbito Íbero-Balear y Macaronésico. Nuevos táxones animales descritos en la península Ibérica y Macaronesia desde 1994 (IX). Graellsia 61 (2): 261–282.

[G89] Gestro, R. 1889. Viaggio ab Assab nel Mar Rosso dei signori G. Doria ed O. Beccari con il R. Avviso «Esploratore» dal 16 Novembre 1879 al 26 Febbraio 1880.—IV. Coleotteri. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 5–72.

[LB91] Lawrence, J. F., & E. B. Britton. 1991. Coleoptera (beetles). In: CSIRO. The Insects of Australia: A textbook for students and research workers 2nd ed. vol. 2 pp. 543–683. Melbourne University Press: Carlton (Victoria).

[L19] Lea, A. M. 1919. Notes on some miscellaneous Coleoptera with descriptions of new species.—Part V. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 43: 166–261, pls 25–27.

[L58] Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii: Holmiae.

[M86] Macleay, W. 1886. The insects of the Fly River, New Guinea, "Coleoptera". Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, series 2, 1 (1): 136–157.

[MC13] Majer, J. D., S. K. Callan, K. Edwards, N. R. Gunawardene & C. K. Taylor. 2013. Baseline survey of the terrestrial invertebrate fauna of Barrow Island. Records of the Western Australian Museum Supplement 83: 13–112.

[MW15] McKenna, D. D., A. L. Wild, K. Kanda, C. L. Bellamy, R. G. Beutel, M. S. Caterino, C. W. Farnum, D. C. Hawks, M. A. Ivie, M. L. Jameson, R. A. B. Leschen, A. E. Marvaldi, J. V. McHugh, A. F. Newton, J. A. Robertson, M. K. Thayer, M. F. Whiting, J. F. Lawrence, A. Ślipiński, D. R. Maddison & B. D. Farrell. 2015. The beetle tree of life reveals that Coleoptera survived end-Permian mass extinction to diversify during the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution. Systematic Entomology 40 (4): 835–880.

[O94] Otte, D. 1994. The Crickets of Hawaii: origin, systematics and evolution. The Orthopterists’ Society: The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

[S89] Schmidt, J. 1889. Descrizione di una nuova specie di Histeridae. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, Serie 2a, 7: 112.

[Z93] Zimmerman, E. C. 1993. Australian Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) vol. 3. Nanophyidae, Rhynchophoridae, Erirhinidae, Curculionidae: Amycterinae, literature consulted. CSIRO Australia.

Fusobacteria

Stained culture of Fusobacterium nucleatum, copyright J. Michael Miller.


Belongs within: Life.

The Fusobacteria are a group of anaerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria with a chemoorganotrophic heterotrophic metabolism (Garrity & Holt 2001).

<==Fusobacteria [Fusobacteriaceae, Fusobacteriales]
    |  i. s.: Ilyobacter GH01
    |         Cetobacterium GH01
    |--+--Leptotrichia buccalis MP95
    |  `--+--Sebaldella termitidis [=Bacteroides termitidis] MP95
    |     `--Streptobacillus moniliformis MP95
    `--+--Propionigenium modestum MP95
       `--Fusobacterium MP03
            |  i. s.: F. perfoetens PHK96
            |--F. necrogenes MP95
            |--+--F. varium MP95
            |  `--+--F. mortiferum MP95
            |     `--F. ulcerans MP95
            `--+--+--F. gonidiaformans MP95
               |  `--F. necrophorum MP95
               `--+--F. russii MP95
                  `--+--+--F. alocis MP95
                     |  `--F. simiae MP95
                     `--+--F. nucleatum MP95
                        `--F. periodonticum MP95

Nomen invalidum: Leptotrichia trevisanii Tee, Midolo et al. 2002VP JC08

*Type species of generic name indicated

REFERENCES

[GH01] Garrity, G. M., & J. G. Holt. 2001. The road map to the Manual. In: Boone, D. R., R. W. Castenholz & G. M. Garrity (eds) Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology 2nd ed. vol. 1. The Archaea and the Deeply Branching and Phototrophic Bacteria pp. 119–166. Springer.

[JC08] Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes. 2008. Status of strains that contravene Rules 27 (3) and 30 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria. Opinion 81. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 58: 1755–1763.

[MP95] Maher, M., R. Palmer, F. Gannon & T. Smith. 1995. Relationship of a novel bacterial fish pathogen to Streptobacillus moniliformis and the fusobacteria group, based on 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 18: 79–84.

[PHK96] Prescott, L. M., J. P. Harley & D. A. Klein. 1996. Microbiology 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Publishers: Dubuque (Iowa).